Why are gallstones and what threatens it.
Gallstone disease (cholelithiasis) - the formation of stones in the gall bladder and bile ducts. The stones of the gallbladder cause its inflammation, up to purulent phlegmon, and the stones of the biliary ducts can cause the blockage of the latter.
The causes of the formation of gallstones to the end are not studied. According to one version, concrements are formed with concentrated bile on the background of unchanged mucosa. This is the so-called primary cholelithiasis. Secondary, on the contrary, is caused by inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the gallbladder. In this case, the inflamed mucus provokes the concentration of bile acid salts, which begin to overgrown with the crystals of the components of bile, as the pearl overgrown with mother-of-pearl.
The composition of gallstones is always heterogeneous, but, because of the predominance of one component, they are divided into cholesterol, pigmentary, calcareous and mixed. The stones can be single and multiple. The diameter is also very diverse, from small pebbles, the size of the pea, to large, the size of the egg, which fill the entire cavity of the gall bladder.
Gall bladder disease in women occurs several times more often than men. The generally accepted explanation for this fact is the disturbance of bile outflow during pregnancy. Also, cholelithiasis is more often found in older people and in high nutrition. The prevalence of the disease is associated with the characteristics of nutrition, which is dominated by animal fatty foods. The proof of this version is a low percentage of morbidity in developing countries with predominant plant nutrition or in Japan, a country with high seafood consumption.
It is generally recognized that the disease is more common in patients with overweight. Explanations of this fact are two: either an increase in the volume of the abdomen complicates the outflow of bile, or obesity - just a consequence of excessive consumption of fatty animal food.
Whatever the origin of the gallstones, the development of the disease is usually very similar. Patients begin to experience attacks of pruritus in the right hypochondrium. Usually this is preceded by the recent use of greasy, roasted or smoked food. Such pain attacks are called bile duct (liver). They are a sign of inflammation of the walls of the gall bladder, which begins to decrease sharply in response to the receipt of certain products.
Nutrition and exacerbation
The main component of bile is bile acids, which promote digestion and assimilation of fats. Therefore, strong choleretic products include butter, fat, eggs and fatty meat. They can provoke bile ring attacks and, as a result, inflammation of the gall bladder. Therefore, the diet of patients with cholelithiasis excludes such products, including chocolate, soda water and some vegetables (diet table number 5). It should be remembered that the diet only helps to reduce the frequency and strength of the attacks, but does not cure the main cause - gallstones.
The common complication of cholelithiasis is inflammation of the gall bladder (cholecystitis). Cholecystitis can go into difficult forms, with the development of a breakthrough of the gall bladder and the dispersion of bile in the abdominal cavity (gallstone peritonitis). This is promoted by large single stones, which press on the wall of the bubble and violate its blood supply (dilators of the gall bladder).
Minor stones are not less dangerous. They are able, along with the current of bile to leave the bladder in the general bile duct and cause its blockage. Complete violation of bile outflow causes not only the overflow of the gall bladder, but also a significant increase in pressure in the liver bile ducts. The yellow components get into the general blood flow, causing the jaundice. This jaundice is called mechanical. It is dangerous for the development of general intoxication with the development of insufficiency of all internal organs. Mechanical jaundice is an indication for urgent surgical intervention.