What is the pedagogical classification of children with hearing impairment and why it is needed.
Pedagogical classification of children with disabilities by hearing is aimed at their differentiation, depending on the factors and degree of deafness. In addition, such classifications underlie various educational processes of those or other children and adults with hearing impairment.
Psychological-pedagogical classification RM Boskis
In our country, the most widespread among surdo pedagogues and psychologists received psychological and pedagogical classification RM. Boskis It is based on the theory of compensation of psychological functions L.S. Vygotsky, in particular - the position on the complexity and structuring of violations of functions.
In this classification, the main criteria are:
- Degree of hearing loss;
- Time of hearing impairment;
- Level and degree of language development.
Groups of children with hearing impairments
The first group - children born with impaired hearing or hearing loss before the beginning of linguistic development, in the early stages of life. Such children are not able to perceive a natural language, they can not master their own mother tongue. They are able to master the speech only through reading, as well as the enhancement of natural sounds in special education.
The second group is made up of late-deaf children with an already-formed speech. They were deaf when they already understood the language and freely owned it. However, the degree of hearing impairment and language preservation in such children may vary.
Without special training, with severe deafness, the language begins to disappear from the child's everyday life, and if specialists do not deal with it, it may disappear altogether.
These children have an experience of linguistic communication, it is important for them to learn to perceive the language with the help of visual images. Their thinking is similar to the thinking of normally hearing peers, and the higher the level of hearing, the higher the level of thinking.
The third group includes children with preserved but reduced hearing. Depending on the degree of hearing preservation, these children can learn the language independently, but it has many significant disadvantages that are subject to correction during the learning process. The value of visual perception of the language is higher, the lower the level of hearing.
Why a classification is needed
The assignment of a child to a particular group determines the program of his education and the choice of the school in which the child will study and develop.
In particular, at school for the hearing impaired, it is recommended to study late-deaf children, with a good level of linguistic development, and deafness for children.
The development of such classifications can play a significant role in the life of the child, because the direction in the non-conforming violations of the educational institution can lead to irreparable consequences.