Shegren syndrome is a genetically determined autoimmune disease, in which chronic inflammation of the glands of the external secretion develops.
Sjogren's syndrome (dry syndrome) is an idiopathic autoimmune disease characterized by mucosal dryness. The cause of the disease is unknown. They are more likely to suffer women than men. Assume the genetic predisposition of an immunopathological response to a viral infection, possibly on retrovirus.
In the pathogenesis of disease, the leading role is given to autoimmune mechanisms. The body produces antibodies to the cells of the salivary and tear glands, which leads to the development of chronic inflammation, impaired function, structural rearrangement of glands with gradual atrophy. The glandular cells of the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract, the bronchial system may wonder.
The diagnosis is made by combining the following clinical data:
- Dry keratoconjunctivitis (with a decrease in lacrimation);
- Parenchymal chronic parotitis (with a decrease in salivation);
- Laboratory signs of systemic autoimmune disease (steady increase of rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibodies, ESR).
The following clinical manifestations can be observed: dry skin and mucous membrane, decreased sweating, swallowing disorder, chronic gastritis with severe secretory deficiency, frequent infections, candidiasis, recurrent myocytes, pancreatitis, hepatitis, tubular acidosis and interstitial nephritis, chronic thyroiditis, arthralgia, myositis, Inflammation of vessels, increase of lymph nodes (submandibular, cervical, supraclavicular).
Differential diagnosis is performed with tumor diseases, alcoholism, diabetes, infectious diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic vasculitis, systemic scleroderma, systemic lupus erythematosus.
In addition, the dryness of the oral mucosa can be caused by the administration of such drugs as antihistamines, tricyclic antidepressants, phenothiazines.
There are three stages of development of the disease: initial, expressed, late. According to the features of the current - acute, subacute, chronic.
Under the debut variant, the disease is distinguished as a primary (as an independent autoimmune disease) and as a secondary (as a consequence of the transmitted rheumatic diseases).
Treatment is basically symptomatic. Objectives of treatment - is to overcome the dryness of mucous membranes and accelerate their healing, the fight against secondary infection, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, substitution therapy (with the disruption of the pancreas and stomach functions).
At the timely beginning of relief of symptoms it is possible to slow down the development of the disease and maintain the efficiency of the patient, with a later onset of treatment, there is a disability of the patients.