Pyelonephritis - inflammation of the renal tissue, the most common cause of which is urolithiasis.
This disease can suffer at any age, but more often it occurs:
- In children under 7 years of age, in which the onset of the disease is associated with anatomical peculiarities of development;
- In girls and women 18-30 years old, in which the appearance of inflammatory processes is associated with the onset of sexual activity, booreness and childbirth;
- In elderly men suffering from adenoma of the prostate gland.
In this case, the outflow of urine from the kidney is disturbed and creates an opportunity for the reproduction of microorganisms-pathogens.
Pyelonephritis is contributing to the reduction of the general immunity of the organism, chronic inflammatory diseases, diabetes mellitus. There are acute and chronic pyelonephritis.
Pyelonephritis begins suddenly, with a sharp jump of temperature to 39-40 degrees. There are headaches, general weakness, abundant sweating, maybe nausea and vomiting. At the same time there are pains in the lumbar, which are dull and have different intensity. If pyelonephritis develops against a background of urolithiasis, then its attack is preceded by an attack of the renal colic. In the uncomplicated form of pyelonephritis, urination is not disturbed.
Chronic pyelonephritis is usually a consequence of a defective acute form of the disease, when it manages to remove acute inflammation, but at the same time not completely destroyed all the pathogens in the kidney, not restored normal outflow of urine from it. Chronic pyelonephritis may be indicative of aching lower back pain, especially in crude cold weather. Chronic pyelonephritis is periodically exacerbated, the patient reappears all signs of acute process.
If the disease is not treated, the acute form of pyelonephritis becomes chronic. Neurological processes develop: apostematous form of pyelonephritis, abscess or carbuncle of the kidney. The condition of the patient worsens, this is accompanied by sharp jumps of temperature (from 35-36 degrees in the morning to 40-41 degrees in the evening).
For the diagnosis of pyelonephritis, blood and urine tests are performed. The general state of the urinary tract (using ultrasound, X-ray) is studied. Diagnosis usually takes place without much difficulty.
Treatment of pyelonephritis
Patients with acute pyelonephritis must undergo treatment in a hospital.
Uncomplicated pyelonephritis is treated conservatively, antibacterial, detoxification and immunostimulating therapy are performed. Treat the patient until the pathogens completely disappear from his urine. The duration of the course is usually 2-3 weeks.
When purulent complications require surgery. Before surgical intervention sometimes resorted to and in the case of urolithiasis, when the stone does not leave independently and it can not be removed by instrumental methods.
Treatment of chronic pyelonephritis is basically the same as acute, but more prolonged and time-consuming.
Prevention of pyelonephritis
The basis for the prevention of pyelonephritis is the treatment of diseases that can lead to its development. In the first place - adenomas of the prostate gland, urolithiasis, as well as all diseases that are accompanied by a violation of the outflow of urine from the kidney.
Pregnant women (especially those with large fetus, multiple fertility, polyhydramnios and a narrow pelvis) need at least once a month to conduct urodynamic studies and bacteriological analysis of urine.