Currently, psychoanalysis is a fairly broad concept. It includes the doctrine of the structure of the human psyche, the methods of research, as well as the practical application of these methods in psychotherapeutic treatment and other spheres.
The history of psychoanalysis has more than 100 years. The founder and creator of this method is Sigmund Freud, further his ideas were supplemented and processed by numerous followers. As a result, during his time since Freud's time, psychoanalytic theory and practice have undergone significant changes.
As an independent direction of psychotherapy, psychoanalysis proceeds from a certain system of views on the device and the principles of the work of the human psyche. The basic prerequisite for psychoanalysis is the recognition of the existence in the psyche of a person of a phenomenon as unconscious.
Unknowing, according to psychoanalytic views, is a huge area of human mental life. It includes various desires, motives, aspirations, beliefs of a person. These desires remain inaccessible for his own understanding, but are actively manifested in behavior and influence decision-making.
Even in the presence of a person's desire to trace some of their own unconscious processes, he can not do it "directly". In order to identify these processes, it is necessary to apply special methods that are used in psychoanalysis, such as the method of free associations, the study of dreams.
Throughout the life of a person often faces the presence of opposing desires, interests and needs. When opposing desires have the same power and significance for a person, there is an intrapersonal conflict.
If at the same time, some of their own desires and needs for any reason are unacceptable for a person, cause anxiety, shame and other negative emotions, then automatically include psychological protective mechanisms. In this case, the conflict is not fully understood by the person and can not be resolved.
According to psychoanalysis, unresolved conflicts in the past remain unconscious. They constantly affect the behavior of a person, distorting his perception of the current reality, leading to the development of neurotic manifestations and symptoms.
Psychoanalysis recognizes intrapersonal conflicts that are at an unconscious level as the main source of psychological problems.
The purpose of psychoanalysis is to study unconscious processes, to achieve human understanding of the connection of current psychological problems with past experience and the transfer of intrapersonal conflicts to an awareness level.
This makes it possible to process and resolve past conflicts.
When trying to solve past conflicts a person faces considerable difficulties. Even with the availability of funds for new solutions, old ways of behavior remain habitual and therefore more secure.
Any change and division with past conflicts requires significant psychological work, as it is often associated with the recognition of their own limitations. As a result of this work, a person learns to better understand not only their limitations, but their own strengths and abilities. Be more conscious, that is, more adequate to perceive reality.
Currently, psychoanalysis in the classical sense is a rather rare form of psychotherapy. This is a long process, which requires considerable expenses, high motivation of the patient and has its limitations.
Often in psychotherapy various modifications of this method are used, which are directed not to the study of the person as a whole, but to any specific symptoms and help a person to cope with certain psychological problems.