Pneumothorax - the presence of air in the pleural cavity. How it happens and why it arises.
Lightly covered with a shell - a pleuroy. The pleura consists of two leaves - visceral and parietal. Visceral leaf covers the lung tissue, and parietal - the wall of the chest cavity. Between these leaves is a pleural cavity.
With pneumothorax, air accumulates in this cavity, with intrapleural pressure becoming equal to the atmospheric, which causes the loss of the lungs. In such conditions, the functioning of the lungs is impossible.
Pneumothorax can be open and closed. When open pneumothorax, the pleural cavity is coupled with atmospheric air, in the chest wall there is a hole. With closed air in the pleural cavity quickly ceases as a result of closing the defect in the parenchyma of the lung or chest.
Double-sided open pneumothorax leads to death if it does not provide artificial respiration by force-inducing air.
In medicine, artificial closed pneumothorax is used when air is injected into the pleural cavity through a needle. This manipulation is performed to create a functional resting of the affected lung, for example, with tuberculosis of the lungs. After some time, the air from the pleural cavity is absorbed, which leads to the restoration of negative pressure in it, and easy straighten out. For this reason, to maintain pneumothorax, it is necessary to re-enter the air into the pleural cavity.
In the case when during the breath of air sucked into the pleural cavity, and when exhaled can not leave it (due to the closure of the defect), there is a valve (tense) pneumothorax.
By etiology distinguish spontaneous and traumatic pneumothorax.
Occurs with various diseases: emphysema, bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, tuberculosis, and others.
In the case when the nature of pneumothorax is difficult to establish, it is called the primary (idiopathic) spontaneous.
Spontaneous pneumothorax may occur with physical activity, cough and resting. There is a sudden pain in the chest area on the affected side, a feeling of lack of air, shortness of breath, dry cough. There are cyanosis (cyanosis of the skin), an accelerated heartbeat (tachycardia), in some cases - a drop in blood pressure.
Occurs when mechanical damage to the chest, bronchi and lungs, with injuries.
Traumatic pneumothorax in children can be a complication of medical manipulations, for example, in the puncture of the subclavian vein, removal of the foreign body of the bronchus, pleural puncture, biopsy, and others.
If there is a small amount of air in the pleural cavity, the symptoms are poorly expressed. With a significant amount of air in the pleural cavity, there are severe disorders of ventilation, loss of lungs.
A patient with signs of pneumothorax should be urgently taken to a hospital, accompanied by a health worker.