Peritoneal dialysis allows you to clean your blood during sleep, work, or during daily tasks.
Before the first procedure of peritoneal dialysis, a patient waits for surgical intervention in order to access the abdominal cavity. The surgeon makes a small dissection most often in the navel region. Then, through this section, a plastic tube, called a catheter, is introduced.
The solution for peritoneal dialysis is characterized by a high concentration of glucose - as a result of excess fluid and decay products "extracted" in the abdominal cavity and then output through the catheter.
- No operation on vessels;
- Not used heparin;
- Liquid is released slowly (it is important for people with cardiovascular pathology);
- Patients can perform it on their own.
- Longer dialysis sessions.
When it is necessary to conduct the procedure, the patient introduces a cleansing solution, or dialysis, through the catheter. Doctors should show the patient how to do it.
The procedure consists of three stages.
- Filling. A solution for dialysis (about 2 liters) through the catheter fills the stomach.
- Exposition. Products of life and excess fluid come out of the blood through the peritoneum (a lining that covers the abdominal cavity and covers internal organs) and gets into a dialysis solution. The period of time when the fluid is in the abdomen is called exposure. The exposure time can range from four to six hours.
- Drainage. Waste and excess fluid are removed from the body together with a dialysis solution.
The process of filling and drainage, called substitution, takes from 30 to 40 minutes. Replacement may be necessary for the patient every day. There are two main types of peritoneal dialysis. They differ in the schedule of replacement.
Continuous outpatient peritoneal dialysis (PAED) is performed daily 4-5 times, exposure time - 3-4 hours. The patient can do it on his own. The device is not required.
In cyclic peritoneal dialysis (CPR), a special device is used which automatically pours and removes the abdominal solution, as a rule, while the patient is asleep. Exposure time - 1.5-2 hours.
Prevention of infectious complications
One of the most common complications of peritoneal dialysis is peritonitis.
Support for cleanness and sterility in the catheter area will help the patient to avoid infection. If the infection has fallen into the abdominal cavity, dialysis can not continue. To prevent infection, the following recommendations should be followed:
- Always wash your hands before touching the catheter;
- Put on a surgical mask during replacement;
- Handle an antiseptic input;
- Check the solution for contamination.