All about extreme sports. But few know that there are doctors who deal with extreme medicine.
Extreme medicine: species
- Space medicine
- Sports medicine
- Military medicine
Scientists and doctors investigate the physiological problems and reactions of the cosmonaut to various overloads. But this does not mean that space medicine deals only with the health of people who conquer space. The knowledge gained may be relevant for normal patients who are in critical condition.
For example, a violation of blood circulation in small vessels is a frequent problem faced by astronauts and ordinary patients. Blood passes poorly in capillaries, thereby breaking the nutrition of tissues. In ordinary patients, this is due to the pathology of the vascular bed, in cosmonauts, by gravitational overloads. Treatment of the same and those of others is the same. Now the Center for Space Medicine in London is studying the effects of nitrate, which is added to food and drinks, on microcirculation of blood.
Another interested physicians in this field of extreme medicine is the problem of lack of oxygen in the blood, which commonly encounter ordinary patients. A similar condition is felt by people, being in space or high in the mountains, where the oxygen content in the air is less. This condition is called hypoxia, and it can lead to serious damage to the internal organs.
The Scientific Center for Space Medicine in the United Kingdom is currently studying Wlana extreme temperatures and deep-water diving on human health.
Sports medics also deal with the effects of hypoxia on health. In particular, they collect data on the health of beginner mountaineers to determine why some people can carry heavy physical activity and become athletes, while others do not.
Analysis of data showed that some climbers quickly lost weight while lifting, while others kept it at the same level. This indicates a significant difference in the metabolism of the subjects. Rapid climbing at all turned out to be dangerous to the health of climbers, which suggests the importance of the correct mode of operation with power loads. All the data received will help coaches in future to build individual work with athletes and achieve the best results. In addition, these studies have given impetus to the development of simple and convenient equipment that climbers can use in their work.
However, not everyone agrees that a good physical condition is the only guarantee of success. The microsurgery and climber, Kenneth Calmer, was preparing to climb Mount Everest on May 11, 1996. Strong wind covered three groups of climbers who were with him nearby. Eight people died on that day, and the injured doctor Calmer and other doctors were treated in an improvised hospital.
Kalmer wrote the book "Travel a Doctor to the Borders of Human Endurance," in which he reflects on the causes of what happened. He argues that the cause was an untrained brain work and a lack of will power. Only they, in his opinion, are able to cope with environmental stress.
Another example of extreme medicine is military medicine. The work of doctors in the war zone - seriously injured patients, injured, torn limbs and burns - much different from the scope of the ordinary physician.
Recently scientists have developed a compound that is introduced into the injury traumatic facial bones and stimulates growth of normal tissue in the fracture. At present, clinical trials are starting on patients, during the last 12 months they have been on the battlefield.
In addition, the development of a technique for regeneration of tissues destroyed by severe burns. In the case of success, the results can be used to treat the civilian population.
Another area of military medicine is the treatment of the civilian population of countries affected by the hostilities. One of the most common causes of lesions is mines, often children are victims. Although the UN and other non-governmental organizations carry out mine action, the number of victims annually reaches 4,000.
Gino Strada, who organized humanitarian organization of medical emergency, describing injuries from mines: "Quite often lower leg just cut off. One can see the remains of bones, which stands below the knee. Sometimes the leg separates with his knee, large wounds often affect the hip, buttocks and genital Often, the loss of the leg is accompanied by penetrating wounds in the stomach and chest. " Strada, who worked for the military physician 10 years, still can not see the baby's body, torn mine, without tears.
Often, doctors themselves become victims of their extreme profession. In 1996 Strada worked in the first emergency hospital in Sulejmani in northern Iraq when Saddam Hussein forces attacked Kurds. The hospital was overwhelmed by wounded soldiers, doctors worked for 18 hours. In Strada, a heart attack occurred, and he was transported to Italy, where he was made bypass surgery.
Military physicians, among other things, need to possess the skills of building a field clinic, teamwork, discipline and the ability to cope with stress. Not every doctor, even a surgeon, is capable of working in extreme medicine, where there are strictly limited resources. In addition, in order to become a military physician, it is necessary to learn how to determine which patients have a chance of survival and who do not have it. After all, in the course of hostilities, doctors can not spend three hours on a hopeless patient, while victims with great chances of survival die without medical assistance.