Arthroscopy makes it possible not only to obtain accurate data on the condition of the joint, but also to make the necessary treatment.
Arthroscopy - an endoscopic method of diagnosis, treatment of injuries, diseases of the knee joint. With arthroscopy, you can conduct therapeutic manipulations with meniscus ruptures (operation of meniskectomy), other damage to the articular cartilage, breakages of intra-articular ligaments or inflammatory diseases of the knee joint.
When arthroscopic examination is performed on the joint, a doctor inserts a small instrument consisting of a set of lenses of varying intensity and lighting systems.
The light goes into the joint through the optical fiber, and the image from the joint is transmitted through a small chamber to the screen, showing the surgeon the location of the pathology in the joint (cartilage, ligaments, etc.), which is necessary for the purpose of proper and effective treatment.
The history of arthroscopy originated in the 30's of the XX century. The pioneer of this invention was Professor Takagi of Tokyo University, who in 1931 created an artroscope with a diameter of 4 mm. It was with the use of this apparatus that it was possible to perform a synovial biopsy of the joint.
Then the first color images of intra-articular knee formations were obtained. Japanese explorers became the discoverers of arthroscopy, who successfully began to apply this invention in the diagnosis and treatment of knee injuries.
In medicine, the diagnosis of joint diseases begins with a detailed patient survey; important attention is paid to patient complaints about symptoms, his description of the mechanism of injury and pain.
The most popular method of diagnosing joint diseases is currently radiography. However, this method can not answer all the questions that arise from doctors in the diagnosis of pathological changes in cartilage, meniscus, ligaments, and some other constituent structures that can not be seen on radiographs.
For proper diagnosis of meniscus damage, pneumarthrography is required, which involves the introduction of air into the cavity of the capsule and subsequent radiography.
In addition to this easiest method of diagnosis, in medicine are used and quite complex methods: magnetic resonance or computer tomography. Indications for procedure of arthroscopy are very strict, because this procedure refers to invasive diagnostic methods.
With arthroscopy of the knee joint, a pathology can be diagnosed that can not be reliably confirmed by clinical (paraclinical) research, including arthrography:
- Damage to the anterior or posterior cruciate ligament (in the knee joint);
- Torsion tendons, ligament in the knee joint;
- Dislocation of a supraclone;
- The presence of cartilage fragments in the articular cavity;
- Damage to meniscus;
- Intra-component fractures.
When detecting extraneous bodies in the joint, arthroscopy makes it possible to remove small free fragments (bone, cartilage) from it.
Patients who have undergone an arthroscopic operation should follow the medical guidelines in the first weeks after it:
- Walk with a full footrest.
- Lift the operated leg to facilitate the outflow of venous blood.
- To give a small load on the hip muscles.
- Not recommended for seat and knee bending more than 90 degrees.