Angina pectoris is often called a frog - for the fact that it manifests itself by an attack compressing, compressing, burning pain behind the sternum.
With angina, the lumen leading to the heart of the coronary arteries is narrowed due to cholesterol plaques on the walls of the vessels. If, in addition, there is a spasm, the blood supply that carries oxygen sharply decreases to the heart and it responds to oxygen deficiency by pain.
Pain with angina usually occurs when physical activity - hence the name "angina tension". When the heart is working more actively, it needs an influx of oxygen-enriched blood, and narrowed coronary arteries can not increase blood flow. The less blood is able to pass through these arteries, the less is the level of physical activity that a person can tolerate without the occurrence of pain.
What is angina pectoris
The portability of physical activity is expressed through functional classes.
In the first (I) class, pain occurs only at a very high load, and the normal person transfers well.
The second (II) class means that angina attacks occur when walking in an even place at distances of more than 500 m or when climbing more than one floor on the stairs.
The third (III) class indicates a significant limitation of normal physical activity. An attack on pain may occur when walking in a flat spot at a distance of 100 to 500 m or when walking up the stairs to one floor.
The fourth (IV) class is characterized by pain in the sternum when walking in an even place at a distance of less than 100 m. Pains may appear in the rest, especially with an increase in blood pressure, when spasmiruyutsya and without that narrowed coronary vessels.
There is also a special type of angina, in the development of which the main role is given to narrowing the blood vessels not due to cholesterol plaques, but due to spasm. Pain at the same time usually occurs at rest, often at night or early in the morning. Pain can also be provoked by stress, cold weather, abundant food intake.
Sometimes pain appears not behind the sternum, but in the neck, left shoulder blade or arm, lower jaw. Sometimes instead of pain there is a feeling of numbness.
Pain lasts for a short time, several tens of seconds, sometimes up to five to ten minutes. If the pain lasts for half an hour or longer, it does not pass in a state of rest, this is a serious reason for suspicion of blockage of the vessel (thrombus, an atherosclerotic plaque). In this case, one of the areas of the heart muscle is deprived of food, which can cause myocardial infarction. This site is not restored, but replaced by a scar.
Which worsens the course of the disease
The proven factors of risk, which aggravate the prognosis, are high blood cholesterol, chronic increase in blood pressure and smoking.
Nicotine is a potent vasoconstrictor poison, and cholesterol contributes to the growth of atherosclerotic plaques on the walls of the vessels.
In the light of this, in case of angina, it is necessary to refuse to smoke and practically exclude from the diet of fats of animal origin (especially those rich in cholesterol products such as egg yolk, butter, brains, sour cream, cream, liver, kidney, caviar). Also, patients are usually advised to take special medications that lower the amount of cholesterol in the blood.
In case of concomitant arterial hypertension it is necessary to constantly take antihypertensive drugs, which will maintain blood pressure at the optimal level, avoiding sharp fluctuations. Alcohol, strong tea and coffee contribute to spasm of the vessels, but it is easy for angina to drink a glass of good red wine.
With regard to treatment, its main objectives - to prevent the development of myocardial infarction and reduce the number and severity of pain attacks, improving the physical capacity of the load.
Patients with a newly diagnosed stenocardia should not refuse their examination and treatment in a hospital because their life and health depend on it.