One of the most unpleasant and severe complications of diabetes may be multiple vision organ diseases. As a result, the diabetic risks simply blinding.
Diabetes mellitus is dangerous because of its severe long-term complications. So, visual impairment in diabetes is very versatile and affects all the structures of the eye. And it is no coincidence that more than half of the patients with visual impairment (and according to some data - up to 80%) - are diabetics.
Changes in refractive index of the eye in diabetes
Such short-term vision impairment in diabetes, such as far-sightedness and myopia, occurs occasionally and is due to fluctuations in the level of sugar.
Depending on the amount of change of intraocular fluid, which affects the shape of the eye lens - it can become a concave and convex. Accordingly, vision is deteriorating when seen and far and near.
Such violations are usually short-lived and can be rotated even within one day. When the sugar level is normal, they disappear.
Diabetic macular edema
After 20 years of life with diabetes, this pathology of vision overtakes approximately 25-30% of patients. In diabetic maculopathy, the central parts of the retina - macules - are affected, which leads to a decrease in central vision.
The macula cells receive nutrition from the vasculature of the eye that lies deeper. When angiopathy is typical for diabetes, macula is disturbed, which may lead to loss of ability to read or distinguish small objects, however, in the future it does not lead to blindness.
An effective method to combat macular edema of the retina is to compensate for metabolic disorders (carbohydrate, fat and protein), as well as control of blood pressure. In addition, the disease undergoes medical and surgical treatment.
Persistent cloudiness of the lens, or cataracts, in patients with diabetes develops twice as often than in healthy people.
Depending on the type of diabetes, these haze may be different, even translucent, which practically does not reduce or slightly reduce vision. Such a state can remain stable for many years.
With rapid progress of the opacification process, it is possible to remove the lens and replace it with artificial.
This complication affects the retina of the eyeball. The reason is damage to the retina vessels, which leads to disruption of blood supply to the eye. The result of this persistent violation is a significant deterioration and even loss of vision. There are several stages of the disease.
At the first stage of the disease, there are isolated cases of blockage of small vessels of the retina (non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy). At this stage, there are no visual disturbances, but it can last for years.
At the second stage, blockage of small vessels ends with hemorrhages, and their number can be called significant (preproliferative diabetic retinopathy).
The third stage is called proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Clogged capillaries are becoming more and more like zones of disturbance of blood supply to the retina. Feeling "hunger," the body starts the growth of newly formed vessels - the process of neovascularization.
Newly formed vessels grow very fast, while they are extremely fragile and fragile, which leads to intraocular hemorrhages of varying degrees of severity.
If the hemorrhage in the retina and the vitreous body are small, they can be absorbed. Massive hemorrhages in the cavity of the eye (hemophthalm) lead to irreversible cicatricial changes in the vitreous body and may further cause retinal detachment.
Depending on the extent of this process, central vision may be affected. If the newly created vessels continue to grow in the front of the eye, then the pathways of the outflow of the intraocular fluid are blocked, and then there is glaucoma.
Save your eyesight with diabetes - it's possible!
Even if you do not notice changes or worsening vision while in diabetes, visit an ophthalmologist regularly - twice a year.
In case of sudden or severe deterioration of vision with diabetes - immediately to the doctor!
Follow all the recommendations and appointments of your ophthalmologist.
Keep track of your blood sugar level, because your vision depends on it.