The meaning of touch for the blind

Blind People Describe Loved Ones To A Sculptor (Health And Medical Video July 2018).

The touch provides a system of skin and motor feelings of a person that carries him information about the surrounding world.

Tangible and visual sensations are able to adequately present information about various objects and phenomena of the environment, but at the same time they have different ways of perception.

Visual perception is based on the holistic vision of an object, no matter how large and voluminous it was, but when touching a person, one can perceive the subject only in separate parts. Due to the fact that the tactile perception is carried out at a lower speed compared with the visual, the image of the touching object is formed more slowly.

The zone of tacit examination is negligible. For tactile perception of objects, there are a number of obstacles, such as the size of the object, its shape, humidity, temperature, etc. Even with the use of specialized technical means, the touch screen will not be complete. All this imposes an impression on the interaction of the blind and the environment.

However, the touch for the blind is extremely important, because it takes direct part in the reflection of objects and phenomena of the environment, physical and mechanical properties of the surrounding space.

The touch of the blind is the main way of subject knowledge of the environment of his life. It includes two groups of sensations: skin and motor.

Types of skin sensations

To skin sensations include temperature, pain and tactile.

Tactile feelings are contact, they arise when touching anything, when repeated, made with the tactile sensation of the effect there is pressure of the object on the skin. The receptors for tactile sensations on the skin are uneven, so the threshold of sensitivity in each area of ​​the skin is different.

Tactile sensitivity depends on the mass of various factors: decreases from impacts, cuts and other mechanical influences, varies depending on the temperature of the medium or object, the nature of the surface of the tangible subject (for example, a convex object on a flat surface feels better than an object with huge or small depressions).

Tactile sensitivity also depends on the strength and frequency of the press, on the mood of the person: with positive emotions, the sensitivity is higher.

Allocate passive and active tactile sensitivity. Passive tactile sensitivity is carried out without the motion of fingers or hands on the object of the examination, and with active hands move.

The temperature sensations of the skin are associated with a feeling of warmth or cold. The cold receptors on the skin are more than heat, so the skin is more sensitive to cold than heat.

The temperature sensations of the skin can be contact and distant. The greater the difference in temperature between the object and the skin, so the longer distance there is a feeling of warmth and cold.

You can feel the skin not only the temperature of the subject at a distance, but also determine its location in space. For example, the blind man can determine the location of heating or lighting devices, the location of the sun in the sky, etc. Thus, the more the site feels the skin, the smaller the temperature difference is needed to distinguish the objects.

Temperature sensations are prone to adaptation, with the greater the surface of the skin, the degree of adaptation to the temperature regime is higher. For this reason, touching the subject should be short-lived, only then they are informative.

The speed and accuracy of this type of sensation depends on the human experience in determining the temperature of water and air.

Pain sensations arise as a result of exposure to mechanical, chemical, temperature irritants on the skin. They inform the body that in the place of influence the skin is destroyed or close to it. Pain sensations lie at the heart of self-preservation of the body.

When spatial orientation pain sensations are not used.

The skin sensations carry a huge huge stream of information about objects of the surrounding world. With systematic training blind people can learn to easily recognize objects.

Movement sensation in orientation of the blind man

Only one tactile sensitivity does not provide complete perception of objects. To get full information on the size of an object, you need to include a motion analyzer. The motor and tactile analyzers will complement each other.

The motor senses carry a considerable amount of information about the size and spatial location. The motor analyzer performs functions of motion control, its precision, frequency and force. A person feels the movement of the body and can control it.

Motor sensations in most cases contactless, contact motor feelings are possible only at low speed. Otherwise, such an effect can lead to injuries.

The motor sensation performs the function of measuring objects and can allow to estimate the size of objects regardless of their size.

Thus, the entire system of skin and motor sensations with complete or partial loss of vision becomes the most important source of information about the environment. It promotes better orientation in space, and its preservation - a higher degree of mastering orientation skills on the ground.

The meaning of touch for the blind

Category Of Medical Issues: Diseases

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