Urine tests are conducted in laboratory conditions to detect various diseases, assess the body's condition and dynamics of the disease, the effectiveness of therapy.
The final diagnosis is not based solely on the analysis of urine, with its help usually detect deviations and this is the reason for the appointment of additional studies that can finally detect kidney problems, diseases of other internal organs, detect hidden inflammation.
There are several types of research: biochemical, general urine analysis and the Nechiporenko method.
General urine analysis
For preventive purposes, such an analysis is prescribed to all patients who for various reasons have applied to a medical institution. In deciphering this urine analysis, the following indicators are indicated:
- Color of urine;
- specific weight;
- Protein content, glucose, bile pigments and ketone bodies;
- Leukocytes and erythrocytes;
- Mushrooms, parasites and bacteria;
- Epithelium cells;
- Cylinders and salts.
Norm is considered transparent, and light yellow color of urine, the smell should be shabby.
Specific gravity is a coefficient reflecting the ability of the kidneys to concentrate, it should not exceed 1,024.
Norm of leukocytes for men - 0-3; 0-6 - for women;
Erythrocytes: for men - 0-1; 0-3 - for women.
The number of epithelial cells should not exceed 0-10.
Proteins, glucose, bile pigments and ketone bodies, parasites, bacteria and fungi should not be in the urine of a healthy person.
A bad urine test is called if there are serious deviations from these norms.
For example, an increase in specific gravity may indicate diabetes mellitus, a decline in excess fluid in the body and non-sugar diabetes. The reddish color of urine indicates damage to the urinary tract, bladder, tumors, colorless urine - about the ongoing kidney disease. It is not desirable to have mucus or bacteria in the urine, its bad smell speaks of bad metabolism, infection, diabetes.
Increased protein indicates nephrotic syndrome and inflammation, glucose and ketone bodies - about diabetes mellitus. Bilirubin - one of the bile pigments, found in people with liver pathologies.
Biochemical analysis of urine
Biochemical analysis is done to assess the state of the internal organs, metabolism. Indicators of urine analysis:
- glucose. Its norm - 0,03-0,05 g/l;
- Total protein - not more than 0,033 g/l;
- Amylase - 10-1240 EDL;
- Potassium - 38,4-81,8 mmol/day;
- Phosphorus - 0.4-1.3 g/day;
- Sodium - 100-260 mmol/day;
- Creatinine - in men - 0,64-1,6 g/l, in women - 0,48-1,44 g/l;
- Microalbumin - no more than 3-4.25 mmol/day;
- Uric acid - 0.4-1 g/day;
- Magnesium - 3-4.25 mmol/day;
- Urea is 333-578 mmol/day.
A poor urine test that detected a deviation from the indicated norms may indicate infection, poisoning, kidney disease, and liver disease.
Analysis by Nechiporenko
If there is a suspicion of hidden inflammation of the genitourinary system, carry out an analysis on Nechiporenko. For this analysis take the middle part of the jet of urine and pay attention to the elevated levels of leukocytes, red blood cells, and cylinders. The high level of these urine tests indicates infection, cystitis, prostate adenoma, pyelonephritis, urolithiasis, glomerulonephritis and other serious kidney diseases.
Urinalysis during pregnancy
A pregnant woman undergoes urine analysis at each scheduled examination, as the genitourinary system is experiencing a heavy load, and its functionality should be kept under control. Interested physicians usually have a general urine test. The presence of protein in the urine is allowed, but not more than 300 mg/day. If the norm is overestimated, the kidneys should be checked.
When a sharp increase in protein raises the question of hospitalization of the mother. Elevated leukocytes in urine analysis during pregnancy indicate pyelonephritis, renal infections. Blurry urine indicates that it contains urates, phosphates, manure, calcium oxalates, leukocytes, bacteria, red blood cells.
The presence of ketone bodies during pregnancy indicates early onset of toxicosis. When receiving a poor urine test, women are advised to give urine for bacteriological sowing, repeated general analysis.
Urinalysis in children
In most cases, urinalysis in children is carried out in general, only the norms of urine analysis in a child are different from those of an adult. The specific density of urine in newborn babies should not exceed 1,018, In children from the fifth day to two years - 1,002-1,004, In children 2-3 years - 1,010-1,017, 4-5 p. - 1,012-1,020, In children after 10 years - 1,011-1,025.
Leukocyte norm for boys - 5, girls - 7; Erythrocytes - 3-4; Epithelial cells - 1-2.
How to collect urine for research
To obtain adequate analytical results, it is recommended that patients stop taking uroseptics and antibiotics, refrain from using products that may affect color (asparagus, carrots, blueberries, beets, rhubarb) on the eve of delivery of urine. Liquid should be used in the usual volume, no more and no less. Before collecting urine for analysis in children, adults need to carry an ordinary toilet of genital organs, but without the use of antibacterial and disinfectants.
It is undesirable to pass urine for analysis during menstruation, shortly after cystoscopy, less than 12 hours after the last sexual intercourse. Urine for biochemical analysis can be taken during the day, for general urine analysis, research by the method of Nechiporenko - only in the morning.
For analysis, the collected urine is only available for two hours: it quickly decomposes, and it can appear in bacteria and salts that can affect the results of the study.