Ultrasound (fetal ultrasound) is the main method of diagnosis during pregnancy. How many times do a pregnant woman ultrasound of the fetus, determines the gynecologist who is observing her.
The goals of the ultrasound of the fetus differ, depending on what period of pregnancy it is being performed. Typically, the number of planned (mandatory) ultrasound scans does not exceed 5 times:
1. To determine the pregnancy itself - approximately for a period of 5 - 7 weeks;
2. To evaluate the development of the fetus within the womb, as well as the condition of the mother's placenta and the elimination of developmental defects. Ultrasound of the heart is carried out - for a period of 11 - 13 weeks;
3. To exclude developmental defects, assess the condition of the placenta and amniotic fluid in it, as well as to determine the sex of the child. It is mandatory to determine the size of the fetus by ultrasound and ultrasound of the heart of the fetus - for the term 19 - 21 weeks;
4. To determine the approximate weight of the baby and the condition of the umbilical cord, as well as the proportionality of the size of his head and maternal birth tract. The size of the fetus is determined by ultrasound - for the term 32 - 34 weeks;
5. To prepare for childbirth in order to anticipate possible complications - right before delivery, with first encounters or with the departure of amniotic fluid.
The main types of ultrasound are fetuses and how they are carried out
There are such basic methods of ultrasound of the fetus, such as:
1. Transabdominal (the sensor is located on the abdomen of a woman);
2. Transvaginal (the sensor is inserted into the vagina).
Both treatments are absolutely painless for a woman, and ultrasound for the fetus is not harmful. Transvaginal ultrasound is a more accurate method.
Recently, quite common methods for obtaining additional information about pregnancy are three-dimensional and four-dimensional ultrasound of the fetus. For 3D or 3D ultrasound, a complex computer program that provides a spatial image of the fetus, which is based on two-dimensional (flat) images, is used. In essence, a three-dimensional ultrasound allows you to get an accurate picture of the fetus. Currently, this method of diagnosis is used to detect early fetal malformations that could have been lost during normal ultrasound. For example, with the help of ultrasound of the heart of the fetus, defects in the development of the organ can be detected.
A four-dimensional or 4D-ultrasound of the fetus allows you to see the spatial imaging of the child in real time, while showing its movement and the work of all internal organs.
Future mothers often worry about the harmfulness of ultrasound for the fetus? So, modern ultrasound machines are absolutely harmless for mom and future baby.
In addition, they allow not only to determine the size of the fetus by ultrasound, to make ultrasound of the fetal heart, but also to print photographs, as well as record video.
For ultrasound of a heart of a fetus the doppler of an ultrasound is used. This device makes it possible to conduct blood circulation studies in blood vessels, in the heart of the baby and in the umbilical cord, as well as in the mother's placenta vessels. Doppler ultrasound data are important for early detection of potential child health problems: heart failure; Anomalies of blood vessels; Problems with the placenta.
Doppler ultrasound doctors recommend that all pregnant women be given 12 and (or) 20 weeks in a pregnancy. An unplanned ultrasound gynecologist can appoint in the following cases:
- Bloody discharge from the genital tract;
- Pain in the lower abdomen.
Frequent repetition of ultrasound for the fetus is not harmful and does not completely harm the normal development of the child.
Preparation for the procedure
In order to correctly determine the size of the fetal ultrasound, to reliably evaluate the results of ultrasound, after decoding the ultrasound of the fetus, the pregnant woman should know the basic rules of preparation for this procedure.
First, you need to find out what kind of ultrasound is prescribed (through the vagina or through the abdomen). This depends on the way of preparation for ultrasound:
1. At carrying out transabdominal ultrasound in about 2 hours you should drink at least 1 liter of water and do not attend the toilet before the procedure;
2. When a transvaginal ultrasound was performed, the bladder had to be empty, so before going to the procedure, go to the toilet. In addition, the woman before the procedure does not need to be nervous and ask whether it is harmful for ultrasound for the fetus.
Decoding the ultrasound of the fetus
The rates of performance and parameters used to decipher fetal ultrasound may vary, depending on the duration of pregnancy. Decoding the ultrasound of the fetus is done by a doctor, using special tables.
Fetal dimensions by ultrasound are determined by the following indicators:
- Circumference of the fetal head (HC);
- Bipartite Diameter (BPD);
- Fetal length from the crown to the sacrum (CRL);
- Fetal Femoral Length (FL).
When decoding the ultrasound of the fetus, the amount of amniotic fluid (amniotic fluid) is determined. A deviation from the norm of this parameter, to a greater or lesser extent, may indicate a violation of the development of the nervous system or fetal kidneys, as well as a signal of intrauterine infection.
Much attention when decoding the ultrasound of the fetus is paid to the placenta (children's place). Ultrasound determines the following placental parameters:
2. Degree of maturity;
3. Features of its attachment;
4. Condition of its development.
The determination of a child's gender by ultrasound is usually done on the third scheduled ultrasound (after the 20th week of pregnancy). The degree of accuracy in the determination of sex by the method is not more than 90%.
When decoding the ultrasound of the fetus it becomes possible to detect the following developmental anomalies:
- Hydrocephalus - it is a congestion in the cavity of the skull of the cerebrospinal fluid, which threatens the normal development of the brain;
- Anencephaly - complete absence of a brain (a lethal diagnosis);
- Myelomeningocele - a hernia of the spinal cord which seriously threatens the development of the child's brain and spinal cord;
- The back is bifido - splitting of the spine. It threatens the normal development of the spinal cord in the child;
- Fainting (atresia) of the duodenum - an abnormality, which requires urgent surgery immediately after the birth of the child, which makes it possible to restore intolerance to the intestine;
- Disorders of the fetus with ultrasound of the heart - deviation in its structure, as the circulation of blood in the heart of the child is disturbed. It is important to find out that, in case of a dangerous vice, to carry out an operation immediately after delivery;
- Down syndrome - it is a chromosomal disease, in which there are multiple defects of development and delayed mental development of the child.