Tumors of the adrenal glands

Adrenal Gland Tumors (Health And Medical Video July 2018).

Adrenal glands - paired glands of the internal secretion, which, despite their small size, play an extremely important role in regulating the body's work.

Malignant tumors of the adrenal glands are much less common (10%) than benign (90%). In recent decades, due to a significant increase in the quality of instrumental diagnosis of adrenal tumors, it became much more frequent.

Types of adrenal tumors

One of the triggers for the formation of adrenal tumors is the pituitary disease (more often, the adenoma of the pituitary gland). However, the causes of the development of adrenal tumors to the end have not yet been studied. A certain role in their occurrence, apparently, is hereditary predisposition.

By localization, tumors are divided into:

  • Primary, formed in the adrenal itself;
  • Secondary - metastatic, formed in another organ, but spread to the blood stream in the adrenal gland (this is always a malignant tumor).

Classification by type of tissue from which the tumor occurs:

  • Adrenal cortex tumors (adenoma, angioma, carcinoma, fibroma, lipoma, myelolipoma);
  • Tumor of the adrenal gland (neuroblastoma, pheochromocytoma, sympathognomy, ganglion).

Classification O.V. Nikolaev (all of the below listed tumors can be both benign and malignant):

  • Androsteroma;
  • Corticosteroids;
  • Kortioandrosteroma;
  • Corticostomy;
  • Aldosteroma;
  • Combined tumors.

Manifestations of adrenal tumors

Depending on the hormone that secretes the tumor, its main symptomatology is formed.

Tumors of the cortical layer of the adrenal glands may be manifested as Cushing's syndrome, in the form of malignant arterial hypertension with impaired kidney function. In this case, the tumors can be malignant or benign.

Tumors of the adjacent brain layer are pheochromocytomas. They produce hormones that increase blood pressure, provoke hypertensive crisis, which can lead to such severe complications as stroke. With pheochromocytoma, stress hormones can be produced.

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Hormone-producing tumors, without proper treatment, are rapidly progressing, especially under stress, and can lead to disability and even to fatal consequences. Therefore, patients with a suspicion of such a tumor need to be examined in the shortest possible time and when diagnosis immediately begin treatment.

Diagnosis of tumor lesion of adrenal glands

Adrenal tumors are diagnosed with ultrasound and tomography. In case of suspicion of a malignant process, X-ray of the lungs is being performed, radioisotope examination of the bones of the skeleton in order to exclude metastases. The level of hormones in the blood and in the urine and the level of adrenocorticotropic hormone in the blood (a pituitary hormone that regulates the work of the adrenal glands) is determined.

treatment

Treatment, as a rule, operative, which performs open or endoscopic access - through a few small cuts on the abdominal wall adrenal tumor is removed. If the tumor is malignant, then the adrenal gland is removed along with the adjacent tissue and lymph nodes.

Feohromocytomas are also treated with radioactive isotopes that are administered intravenously. Some types of tumors are treated with chemotherapy.

Tumors of the adrenal glands

Category Of Medical Issues: Diseases

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