Treatment of malignant neoplasms: a review of the methods

How Does Cancer Spread Through The Body? - Ivan Seah Yu Jun (Health And Medical Video July 2018).

The main types of surgical treatment, medical, radiation and symptomatic therapy.

All methods for treatment of cancer are divided into three main groups:

  • Radical treatment - complete removal (destruction) of the primary tumor, with timely treatment, a complete recovery or remission is possible;
  • Palliative treatment - partial removal (destruction) of the tumor, aimed at reducing its volume and preventing complications (sometimes performed as part of combination therapy);
  • Symptomatic treatment is performed to improve the quality and life expectancy of patients (prevention and treatment of complications of the disease).

Operative methods of treatment of cancer

Radical surgical treatment - tumor removal within healthy tissues, as well as regional lymph nodes. As a rule, it is carried out with the isolation of the wound to prevent the spread of tumor cells, its haematogenous spread.

In this case, the processing of the operating field by special carcinogenic agents. Possibility of carrying out a radical operation is called operability. It takes into account the stages of the tumor process, as well as the state of the body of the patient.

Palliative surgical treatment is performed to create the patient with the most comfortable living conditions, preventing him from painful pain. It is most often performed when the inoperable form of the tumor or the inability to completely remove the tumor, in the presence of metastases. Often, these are emergency measures (in case of bleeding, organ breakthrough, anastomosis).

The most commonly used methods are oncology: electrosurgery, cryosurgery, laser surgery, photodynamic therapy.

Plastic and organ-saving operations are surgical removal of the tumor with the subsequent plastic reconstruction of the organ and the restoration of its function.

Medical therapy for cancer

In this treatment, medicines that slow down growth or destroy tumor cells are used not only in the tumor itself, but also in metastases. The following types of medical therapy for cancer are the most frequently used:

  • Hormonal therapy;
  • Chemotherapy;
  • The use of antitumor radiomodifiers - enhancing drugs damaging the effect of radiation on tumor cells, normal tissues while being weakly damaged;
  • The use of tissue modifiers (cytokines, vascular formation inhibitors, antibodies, immunomodulators), they have antitumor activity, altering the reactivity of the human body.

Radiation therapy for cancer

This method is one of the leading methods of conservative treatment of malignant tumors. It represents the local influence of ionizing radiation on tumor hearths for their irreversible damage.

Symptomatic treatment of cancer

Symptomatic treatment is performed when antitumor therapy options are limited or already exhausted.

The symptomatic treatment includes a home-based hospice, a palliative care department, a hospice-hospital, medical and counseling outpatient centers, and a patronage service at home.

In this case, anesthesia, relief of intoxication, correction of the psycho-emotional state, microsurgical palliative interventions, not associated with the removal of the tumor (tracheostomy, epicistostomy, gastrostomy, nephrostomy, enterostomy, necrectomy, etc.) are carried out.

Treatment of malignant neoplasms: a review of the methods

Category Of Medical Issues: Diseases

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