Rhinitis is inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose. If a bacterial infection causes a dense undead greenish color. When the pathogen is a virus, the discharge from the nose is light, transparent, abundant. For treatment, either antibiotics or antiviral drugs are used.
When hay (from the word "hay") fever are used completely different means, since the treatment of allergic rhinitis requires other drugs.
In the clinical picture, seasonal calm reminiscent of viral, but differs severity and duration of the course. In addition, its appearance is associated with the time of pollination of plants. And the treatment of allergic rhinitis requires the elimination of contact with pathogens, which are bioorganic substances, which in their composition does not pose any danger to people who are not prone to allergic reactions.
Hay fever or seasonal rhinitis are inherited in 80% of cases. The type of transmission is dominant. If grandfather suffered from this disease, then the grandson will also be prone to seasonal allergies. At the same time it is not necessary that the allergic reaction develops only in the spring, foreign and dangerous substances can cause the disease, even in winter. On the wool of animals, for example. Therefore, the treatment of allergic rhinitis can be done at any time of the year.
Drugs for treatment
In contact with an allergen, at the most vulnerable points, an inflammatory reaction develops. The entrance gates for the hay fever are the upper respiratory tract. The nasal mucosa forms pathological complexes: antigen-antibody.
They do not show themselves until the new party of antigens appears. When this happens, there is an immediate reaction.
Allergy is a perverted immune response when the immune cells destroy their own tissues, on the surface of which pathological complexes settle down. Based on the mechanism of disease development, treatment of allergic rhinitis with drugs suppressing the pathological immune response of the body.
At the place of use, medicines used to treat seasonal allergic rhinitis are divided into the following dosage forms:
- Local - aerosols, nasal drops;
- General - Intravenous use, solutions for injection.
According to the mechanism of action on the individual links of the allergic reaction, the following pharmacological agents are used:
- Corrective immune response.
The vasoconstrictor helps to reduce mucous discharge from the nose, provides nasal breathing, but does not solve the problems of treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis, as it does not affect the initial link of the pathological reaction. In addition, vasoconstrictive drops in the nose are not recommended for more than five days in a row, since narrowing the vessels increases the course of the disease.
Means against inflammatory changes contain hormones - glucocorticoids. They act immediately and efficiently.
Treatment of allergic rhinitis with central anti-inflammatory drugs is justified and often indispensable. The fact is that allergens can "migrate" to the lower respiratory tract, causing bronchial asthma.
The use of hormones does not effect the systemic action, further the glucocorticoid nasal mucosa is not absorbed.
The most commonly used medicines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis are antihistamines.
They also act quickly, destroying histamine - the main mediator of allergic reactions. Modern antihistamines do not cause unwanted side effects: lethargy, drowsiness, inattention. Immunomodulators act at the cell level. They inhibit the activity of basophils, which in large quantities secrete histamine.
Drugs of this group are used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis only under the supervision of a physician, because the effect of immunomodulators remains unclear. Some patients are getting better, while others develop a paradoxical reaction.
Specific treatment for allergic rhinitis
The most important in the treatment of allergic rhinitis is the interruption of contact with the pathogen. It is necessary to detect an allergen to exclude it from the use of a sick person. One of these measures is enough to stop all the symptoms of the disease without any medication. Detection of an allergen is made in a special laboratory.
In rare cases, the pathogen can be determined by exclusion, as is the case with food allergy.
There are methods that involve the introduction of an allergen in small doses in order to "get used" to an organism to a foreign substance for it. Gradually increasing the dose of the drug, before the season of pollination in the human body creates a limit concentration of allergen, and external influence does not have any effect on health.
However, this method of treating allergic rhinitis can not be used in all patients, since there is a risk of paradoxical reactions.
Treatment of allergic rhinitis by folk remedies
In order to combat seasonal exacerbation, folk medicine uses the same methods as the official one. In the first place, it is recommended to stop contact with the allergen. Detection of a potentially hazardous substance is made by analyzing heredity. If there are several allergens and it is impossible to get rid of them, treatment of allergic rhinitis by means of folk remedies involves taking medicines aimed at reducing inflammation, correction of immunity and strengthening of the higher nervous system.