Syndrome: what is it

Angelman Syndrome - What Is It? (Health And Medical Video July 2018).

Under the unusual name of "syringomyelia" there is a chronic disease of the central nervous system, which begins at a young age and progresses throughout the patient's life.

Syndrome - a disease with a long history. For a long time, changes in the spinal cord with this disease were only of interest to pathologists and were not associated with symptoms in some patients. The name of the disease was given in 1825. But only in the early twentieth century, syringomyelia was described as a separate disease with specific manifestations.

Why develops syringomyelia

When syringomyelia in the spinal cord, pathological cavities are formed. The cause of the disease is excessive growth of glial cells.

Glia is an auxiliary substance in the brain, those cells that are located between the neurons. Normally, it provides the metabolism of the nerve tissue and performs the reference function. The resulting defective cells quickly perish, therefore, in their place there are cavities in which the fluidity is accumulated. The volumes increase, squeeze the neighboring neurons and cause their death.

Therefore, when the disease progresses, there are symptoms of lesion of the spinal cord.

True syringomyelia is an hereditary disease, often developing in men aged 25 to 40 years. There is also symptomatic syndrome due to trauma or tuberculosis infection.

Symptoms of syringomyelia

Manifestations of the disease are diverse.

  1. Violation of sensitivity, usually in the region of the upper limbs and chest. Patients do not feel pain and lose their temperature sensations. This is how the neurons of the hind legs of the spinal cord break down. Patients often get home injuries and burns due to the fact that they absolutely do not feel pain.
  2. Neurotrophic disorder - the skin of the hands thickens and acquires a bluish tint, poorly heals even small wounds, deforming bones and joints, developing bone fragility. Trophic lesions of the joints cause their purulent melting with the formation of cavities. Usually, shoulder and elbow joints are affected. The hands of the patient with syringomyelia acquire a characteristic look - the fingers are thickened, the skin is dry and scaly, visible scars from burns and cuts.
  3. Movement disorders - paresis, muscle tone reduction, pelvic dysfunction.
  4. Pain syndrome in the upper limbs and chest. Sometimes it occurs even before the sensitivity is disturbed. It turns out as pulling periodic pain.

Sometimes glial cavities develop in the medulla oblongata - syringobulbia. This is dangerous because the respiratory center is located here, and if it is damaged, the patient may die from breathing paralysis.

In addition, such patients develop paralysis of speech, soft palate, atrophic changes in facial tissues.

Treatment of syringomyelia

Syngomyelia is currently an incurable disease, but it progresses very slowly, so patients long remain able to work.

Currently, new methods of treating the disease are being developed, but until they have undergone serious clinical trials. At the moment, the help to patients is to prescribe medications that slow down the progression of the disease.

Widely used radiotherapy - treatment with radioactive iodine, its molecules irradiate pathological cells of glia, causing their destruction or growth retardation.

In extreme cases, operative treatment is possible - drainage of cavities, removal of excess liquid. This reduces the pressure on the nerve tissue, and the spinal cord neurons collapse more slowly.

Syndrome: what is it

Category Of Medical Issues: Diseases

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