In children, type 2 diabetes develops less frequently than type 1 diabetes. Timely diagnostics helps to identify the risk factors for the development of this pathology, as well as laboratory tests.
Many children do not have any symptoms before diagnosing type 2 diabetes. Usually this disease is accidentally detected when conducting a blood test or urine on another occasion.
The doctor may prescribe a type 2 diabetes test if the child's body mass index (BMI) exceeds 85, that is, the weight is more than 120% of the corresponding age.
Risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus
Among the risk factors, the family inclination to type 2 diabetes should be mentioned first of all. Significant role is also played by signs of the body's inability to properly use insulin (insulin resistance) or the states associated with it:
- Skin problems - acanthoceratoderma;
- High blood pressure;
- High cholesterol;
- Increase of activity of liver enzymes;
- Polycystic ovary syndrome, hormonal disorders associated with ovulation.
Manifestations of diabetes mellitus
Some children have a very high concentration of blood sugar at the time of diagnosis. Possible clinical manifestations of this include confusion, drowsiness, loss of consciousness, as well as diabetic ketoacidosis - a condition in which emergency medical care is needed. Ketoacidosis develops more often in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
In case of suspicion of type 2 diabetes in a child, the physician examines the history of the disease, conducts a physical examination and a blood test for the content of sugar. The diagnosis is based on the appropriate diagnostic criteria.
If the child has no symptoms of diabetes, two blood tests on different days should be performed to confirm the diagnosis. In order to diagnose diabetes, the following tests are performed:
- Analysis for hemoglobin A1c. This analysis allows you to determine the content of sugar in the blood for the past two or three months.
- Blood analysis of sugar (glucose) on an empty stomach (not earlier than eight hours after the last meal or liquid).
- Glucose tolerance test. Perform a blood test on the nose, then give the baby a drink of sweetened fluid containing a certain amount of glucose. At the end of two hours, again, determine the concentration of sugar in the blood.
If a child is difficult to determine the type of diabetes (1 or 2), the doctor may perform an C-peptide or autoimmune antibody assay (these antibodies are synthesized when the immune system is not working properly).
The tests do not always show what kind of diabetes develop in a child. The correct diagnosis can take months or years. In any case, the concentration of blood sugar in the baby from this moment must be constantly monitored.
In some cases, for the diagnosis of diabetes in a child, the doctor may conduct a quick blood or urine test on the sugar content at home. Despite the simplicity and effectiveness of these analyzes, other tests may be needed to confirm a child's diabetes.