The semigram is a detailed analysis of the ejaculate (sperm), the study of sperm under a microscope. This analysis allows us to assess the fertility of a man, that is, his ability to conceive. Deviations of spermograms from the norm indicate a reduction in the possibility of conception naturally. However, such deviations do not exclude the probability of conception.
To decrease fertility result in a change in the morphology of sperm, the physical and chemical properties of the ejaculate, the presence of extraneous components in the semen.
Three to five days before the study should exclude the use of alcohol, drugs, especially antibiotics. It is forbidden to visit the sauna and sauna, as overheating sperm will lead to their death. Before research, you must avoid excessive excitement and stress. Sexual restraint is mandatory for this period of time. Masturbation is considered to be the main way to get an ejaculate for spermogram.
When preparing for the study, collect all the semen, which excreted during the ejaculation. Sperm for spermogram (from the very first and last portion) is collected in a plastic sterile container. The reliability of the results of the semen examination depends directly on the conditions of transportation, as well as on the time through which the container was delivered to the laboratory. Preferably, the container should be delivered within twenty minutes after colostrum.
You should not receive semen for spermograms with interrupted sexual intercourse, oral sex, sexual intercourse in a condom. Saliva, latex condom components, vaginal discharge can negatively affect the quality of the ejaculate.
To obtain a reliable and objective result, it is necessary that the spermogram is performed four times with a break of two weeks.
Standards for spermograms
Norms for spermogram are the following values of the main indicators:
- Volume of semen fluid (up to 4 ml);
- Sperm viscosity (up to 0.5 cm);
- Concentration of sperm (more than 20 million in 1 ml of semen);
- Number of sperm (more than 60 million in semen fluid);
- Sperm motility (A> 25% or A + B> 50%);
- Morphology of spermatozoa (more than 20%);
- Number of live sperm (more than 50%);
- Number of cells of spermatogenesis (up to 2%).
Decryption of spermogramm
In the study, first of all, check the time sperm depression. With an increase in the time spent sperm spermatozoa longer gaining their full mobility. With a very liquid semen, the probability of fertilization is significantly reduced.
The sperm viscosity is determined by the length of the thread formed by the sperm when draining from a special needle or pipette. An increase in the viscosity of the ejaculate is usually observed in chronic inflammation of the gonads - vesiculitis or prostatitis.
A thick sperm testifies to possible male infertility. To determine the viscosity of the sperm, it is collected in a syringe and released through a special needle.
Very important for the analysis is the volume of ejaculate. The optimum volume is up to 4 ml. A small amount of isolated semen fluid indicates a very weak fertility and a problem with male health. Reduced volume indicates a lack of function of seminal vesicles, prostate gland. Excess of ejaculate may be due to the inflammatory process in the gonads.
Normally, the color of sperm is yellowish, white, or grayish. The appearance of a brown or red tint of sperm occurs in chronic vesiculitis, calculous form of prostatitis, genital trauma. The yellow color of sperm comes from the use of food dyes and some medications.
About the possibility of conception says the number of sperm. Count the number of sperm by using a special microscope. The normal amount is twenty million sperm in one milliard of ejaculate.
When decoding spermograms, special attention is paid to sperm motility. After all, the most mobile sperm will soon be connected to the egg.
The spermogram helps to determine the number of abnormal sperm. Violations of reproductive function are determined by the acidity of the semen fluid. Normally, the pH of the sperm should be from 7.2 to 7.8. Deviation of pH from the norm indicates possible inflammation of the gonads (vesiculitis, prostatitis).
Reducing the number of spermatozoa is called oligospermia. Oligospermia usually indicates a decreased performance of the testicles. The testicular work can be suppressed by lowering the concentration of male sex hormones in the blood, the inflammatory process, the toxic lesions of the testicle's epithelium, and changes in metabolism. Polyosospermia - an increase in the number of sperm (more than 120 million/ml).
Motility of spermatozoa - the most important indicator of spermogramm. By mobility, spermatozoa are divided into four groups:
- Group A - active sperm with rectilinear motion;
- Group B - Slow sperm with rectilinear motion;
- Group C. - Slow sperm with rotational or oscillatory motion;
- Group D - fixed sperm.
Asthenozoospermia - reduced sperm motility. Motility of spermatozoa may decrease from various diseases and various kinds of thermal and toxic effects on the testicle.
Morphology of spermatozoa is considered to be a very important indicator of spermogramm. This indicator reflects the percentage of fertilizers capable of fertilizing sperm. Nekrospermia - decrease in the concentration of live sperm. Agglutination (sticking sperm) can be observed in chronic inflammatory processes in male genital glands. With agglutination, sperm motility is almost always reduced.
Evaluation of results
The interpretation of spermograms usually takes place Doctor andrologist. If, when decoding spermograms, all the indicators will be within the normal range, then the chances of a quick and successful conception are sufficiently large. If there are any deviations, then about a month they will appoint a re-examination. Since the results of the spermogram can vary, then the final conclusions can be made only after two or three studies.
It should be noted that only the results of the spermogram can not be clearly diagnosed, because the probability of conception depends on many other factors - the reproductive health of the woman, the frequency and duration of sexual intercourse, as well as the age and condition of the patient.