Signs of pneumonia: how to diagnose the disease

Health And Medical Video: What Is Pneumonia - Causes, Symptoms And Treatment For Pneumonia (November 2018).

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Acute pneumonia or exacerbation of chronic pneumonia, as a rule, is accompanied by pronounced clinical manifestations, which are kept on average from 10 to 20 days with uncomplicated disease course.

Common symptoms of pneumonia

Common symptoms of pneumonia are usually due to intoxication caused by bacterial and/or viral, rarely fungal, microflora, and temporary exhaustion of the body's forces.

General weakness

It can arise from the first days of the disease and even a few days before it, to have a pronounced character throughout the disease and persist for 1-2 months after recovery (during the restoration of the body).

May be accompanied by dizziness, loss of appetite, apathy, sleepiness, striving for hypodynamia.

Temperature reaction

It can be of varying degrees of severity and is largely due to the appearance of an infectious agent.

Bacterial pneumonia often occurs with a significant increase in temperature (up to 38-40 degrees), especially in the first week of the disease.

Viral pneumonia can occur with a small and periodically occurring increase in body temperature (low-grade temperature 37-37.5 degrees). Usually, the temperature rises in the first week of the disease, and then, with the death of the inflammatory process, especially in intensive care, it goes down for 3-7 days.

The increase in temperature is accompanied by chills and sweating, sometimes it may be depressed state of consciousness, the appearance of delirium, confusion of consciousness with an increase in motor activity and even hallucinations.

In some cases, fever is observed only in the evening and at night.

Autonomic reactions

They are most often caused by intoxication and incoherent work of various departments of the autonomic nervous system.

This may be manifested by a violation of thermoregulation, hyperhidrosis (high sweating), especially at high temperatures, light tremor of the limbs (in children even in the form of convulsive syndrome), dizziness, headache, loss of appetite, thirst.

Intoxication syndrome

Almost always present, but the degree of its severity is extremely variable - from general weakness and malaise, for example, in viral pneumonia, to depression of consciousness, nausea, vomiting (especially often observed in young children), diarrhea, seizure, muscle and joint pains, Lack of appetite, swelling and pallor of the skin, etc.

Decrease immunity

It may be manifested by the addition of secondary infection and is associated with the weakening of the body's defenses, for example, in cases of influenza (or other viral) pneumonia most often associated with bacterial infection.

And sometimes with irrational and unsystematic treatment of bacterial pneumonia, the fungal infection comes in secondarily, especially after antibiotic therapy, chemotherapy, treatment with glucocorticoids and immunosuppressants.

Common symptoms are nonspecific, that is, they can be observed in various infectious diseases, including other localization (for example, in intestinal infections, wound infection, etc.).

These reactions are due to the mobilization of the body's resources to fight infection in the respiratory tract and corresponding decrease in life support resources in other systems of the organism.

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Specific symptoms of pneumonia

Specific symptoms characteristic of pneumonia are associated with the involvement of different structures of the lungs in the inflammatory process (alveoli, bronchi, pleura).

Cough of varying degrees of severity

Usually associated with the presence of spontaneous bronchial tubes, irritating to their walls and causes a cough reflex.

Depending on the amount and viscosity of the sputum, the cough can be dry, suprapubic and easily flush with sputum, which can carry a mucous membrane, and when combined with a microbial infection, it is purulent, yellowish-green in color and with an unpleasant odor.

With a strong cough and inflammation, it deeply affects the walls of the bronchi and alveoli of the lungs (for example, with crutch pneumonia), sputum may contain veins of blood.

During pneumonia, a cough can occur from day one to full recovery, but can sometimes be weakened and not be a leading symptom in the clinic of pneumonia.

Pain in the chest

This symptom is most often associated with the involvement in the inflammatory process of the surrounding tissue of the lung visceral pleura (a shell that literally grows to the surface of the lung alveoli and, penetrating inside, forms interdolumbia cracks).

Less pain is associated with pleurisy - the accumulation of fluid in the thoracic cavity between the pleura covering the lungs and the pleura covering the inner surface of the chest - ribs, muscles, nerve endings, heart, large bronchi (right and left lung), Trachea and other structures

dyspnea

It is often observed during the height of the disease and is associated with the exception of mild respiratory surface due to congestion in the alveoli and small bronchi mucus. With the release of the airways and adequate tissue oxygen saturation dyspnea gradually disappears.

Signs of pneumonia and diagnosis

All these signs of pneumonia characteristic typical of the disease, but in recent years and in elderly patients with pneumonia may be sluggish current, atypical nature, so sometimes it can be a random finding in the X-ray light or x-ray for another reason, such as during the medical examination.

The diagnosis of "pneumonia" just put the radiologist and physician who examines complaints of patient data and additional research methods (auscultation - listening breathing with the help phonendoscope given laboratory tests and radiological diagnostic methods).

Signs of pneumonia: how to diagnose the disease
Category Of Medical Issues: Diseases