What causes enlargement of the salivary glands from one or both sides.
Problems of salivary glands
A variety of different problems can interfere with the proper functioning of the salivary glands or clog the salivary duct, preventing the flow of saliva into the oral cavity. One of the first symptoms is swelling of the salivary gland.
Slime concrements (stones)
One of the most common causes of enlargement of the salivary gland is the salivary stone, which is a deposition of calcium.
Sometimes salivary glands block the ducts, which makes it impossible to deliver saliva to the oral cavity.
The saliva returns to the gland, causing pain and swelling. The pain is intermittent and progresses rapidly. Probably the addition of infection.
Inflammation of the salivary gland, or sialadenitis
Bacterial infection most often affects the parotid gland, as a result of inflammation, salivary ducts are blocked.
Sialadenit is manifested by a painful swelling of the gland and the secretion of pus with an unpleasant taste in the oral cavity.
Cialadenitis is much more common in adults who have salivary gut, but may also be present in infants in the first weeks of life. Without proper treatment of inflammation of the salivary gland can lead to the formation of abscess (abscess).
Bacterial infections are usually manifested in one-sided lesion of the salivary glands. Diseases cause typical inhabitants of the oral cavity, such as staphylococci.
All these infections mainly affect the parotid glands. Dehydration and malnutrition significantly increase the risk of bacterial infection of the salivary glands.
Viral infections of the salivary glands
Viral infections, such as parotitis and influenza, can also lead to swelling of the salivary glands. Edema occurs in the parotid glands on both sides and is expressed in the so-called "Hamsters".
Swelling of the salivary glands is often a symptom of mumps, manifested in 30-40% of cases of infection.
Usually this symptom manifests itself in about 48 hours before other manifestations - headache and heat.
Other viral infections affecting the salivary gland: Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, koxaca virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Cysts of the salivary glands
The cyst can be formed in the salivary glands in cases where, as a result of injury, infection or salivary gland, salivation is blocked.
Some children have congenital cysts of the parotid glands associated with the pathology of ear formation. The cyst is a slightly protruding hump, soft when palpated. It can interfere with eating or speaking.
Tumors of the salivary glands
Several different types of tumors - both malignant and benign - can also affect the salivary glands.
Two major tumors that affect the salivary gland are the pleomorphic adenoma and Varta tumor.
Pleomorphic adenoma usually occurs in the parotid glands, but may also appear in the submandibular and in the small salivary glands. The tumor usually grows slowly and painlessly. The pleomorphic adenoma is benign tumor and is more common in women.
The Varna tumor is also benign and occurs in the parotid glands. It is usually observed on both sides and more often in men.
Malignant tumors of the salivary glands: lysis-forming squamous cell carcinoma, adenocystous cancer, adenocarcinoma, and malignant pleomorphic adenoma.
Xerodermatosis, or Sjogren syndrome
Chronic autoimmune disease, in which the process involves the salivary and lacrimal glands that leads to dry mouth and a sense of sight in the eyes. About half of people with Sjogren's syndrome have enlarged salivary glands on both sides, but they are painless.
Treatment of diseases of the salivary glands
Treatment of salivary glands depends on the cause of the disease. When stones are formed, treatment usually begins with
- Removal of stones
- Warm compresses
- Or taking sour candies to increase the production of saliva.
If these measures are not sufficient, surgical intervention may be required to remove a stone or a stomach.
Surgery is usually indicated in the case of malignant and benign neoplasms of the salivary glands. Some benign tumors also require a course of radiation therapy to prevent a possible recurrence. Some cancerous tumors also require chemotherapy. Surgical intervention may also be used to treat large cysts.
Other problems of salivary glands are subjected to medical treatment. Bacterial infections are eliminated by the course of antibiotics. Patients who experience dry mouth are also prescribed medicines.