Epilepsy is an incurable disease, but it can be lived with, it is only important to minimize the possibility of injuries during attacks.
There are many names in epilepsy. In 1898 P.I.Kovalevsky counted 41 illness name. She was called "incident illness", "black infirmity", a disease of Hercules, a lunar disease, and in Ancient Russia - a malignant disease.
The disease is best known in the person
There are approximately 30 types of epileptic seizures. Here are the peculiarities of the course of the most common forms of the disease.
Symptom of generalized convulsive attack
It starts suddenly, sometimes its precursors are noted - nausea, dizziness, unpleasant sensations in the peritoneum, noise and bell in the ears.
Attacks are accompanied by short-term stopping of breathing, cyanosis, bite of the tongue, involuntary urination, mydriasis with no reaction of the pupils to light. In this case, there is an asymmetry of mimic muscles, horizontal nystagmus, muscular hypotonia. After an attack, a deep sleep or a coma occurs.
Small seizures (absentees)
Come instantly. For a short time, a person turns off consciousness. But such an attack quickly passes, is forgotten, and leaves no sense of malaise.
It turns out to be a sudden fall as a result of a sharp decrease in the tone of the lower extremities or accompanied by short-term rhythmic twitching of the muscles against the background of exclusion of consciousness.
Begins with a person's spasms, with a turn of the eyeballs, then move to the limbs (upper, lower). Consciousness, as a rule, is not violated.
Sensitive Jackson attacks
They also appear on the background of complete consciousness in the form of numbness, tingling (paresthesia) in the face, half of the body, limbs. In some patients, sensory attacks go on in motion.
These are short, limited cramps of clonic nature. Often, they capture the muscles of the upper limb, sometimes the person, the language of the lower limb. In most cases, it proceeds without loss of consciousness.
Epileptic seizures with psychopathic manifestations
They are accompanied by complicated behavioral disorders - swallowing, chewing, licking, sucking reflexes; Various disorders of the psyche, change of consciousness. In this state, disorientation in time and space and the loss of ability to abstract thinking are characteristic.
It is accompanied by breathing disorder, increased ocular disorders, aphonia, dysarthria, dysphagia, muscle weakness. Paresis of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles is observed. Psychomotor agitation is soon replaced by lethargy.
Patients are characterized by vegetative disorders: enlargement of the pupils, tachycardia, pulse weakness, dry skin. The paresis of the intestine develops, and the function of the pelvic organs is disturbed. There may be a decrease in blood pressure, impaired functions of vital organs. Possible fatal outcome.
It is accompanied by a violation of the oculomotor nerves, respiratory failure, hypotonia of the skeletal muscles. In contrast to the myasthenic crisis, characterized by increased hyperhidrosis, salivation and secretion of mucus from the bronchi, pronounced peristalsis of the intestine, the appearance of spasmodic abdominal pain, profuse diarrhea and frequent urination.
Some patients have repeated vomiting, narrowing of the pupils, bradycardia, hypotension and muscle twitching, sometimes cramps, spasm of the throat muscles. Often there is a loss of consciousness. Death can come from breathing stops.
Epilepsy and pregnancy
Women who suffer from epilepsy can become mothers. If you plan for pregnancy, they will follow the recommendations of the doctor, the child has all the chances to be healthy.
In the case of unplanned pregnancy, self-medication can not be canceled. Abrupt cessation of epilepsy drugs can lead to more frequent attacks. And it will hurt the child.
Epilepsy and children
Children who suffer from epilepsy should try to lead an ordinary way of life: to study languages, to exact sciences, to engage in sports: active physical and mental activity positively affects the course of epilepsy.
The best tennis lessons, badminton, some game sports. Swimming is contraindicated because of the threat of an attack in the water.
Safety rules for epilepsy
The purpose is to minimize the probability of injuries during an attack: do not stay at a height, near the edge of the platform, near the water, fire. Do not strive for driving. When riding a bike it is desirable to wear a helmet, and trips should be on roads without cars.
In photosensitive forms of epilepsy, rhythmic flashing of light should be avoided: watching TV shows, computer games, ripples on the surface of the reservoirs, and flashing lights through the vehicle.
In all other forms of epilepsy, watching TV shows and work on the computer are possible subject to generally accepted hygiene norms.
A patient with epilepsy knows that an attack can happen to him everywhere and at any time. Therefore, it is necessary to take safety measures in advance.
- Cover the floor and furniture with soft materials, close the sharp edges;
- Place protection around open fire places, heaters and radiators;
- Avoid heaters that may overturn;
- Carefully use electrical appliances;
- Do not wear lighted candles, hot dishes or food;
- Do not climb on chairs or stairs, especially if they are at home.
In the bathroom
- Suffering from frequent epileptic attacks should have in the bathroom additional devices (special surfaces, chairs with belts);
- The door must open outside, it is undesirable to lock them;
- It is safer to take a shower rather than a bath;
- Being in the soul, it is desirable to sing, loved ones should hear that everything is in order;
- Avoid too cold or hot water;
- Every time check that the drain and ventilation system is in the bathroom;
- Do not use electrical appliances near water.
In the kitchen
- It is desirable to use plastic plates, mugs and glasses;
- Wearing rubber gloves when using a knife or washing dishes;
- To remove sharp knives; it is better to use already cut food or semi-finished products;
- Warm the food in a microwave oven.
At work or study
- Inform colleagues, teachers or friends about the possibility of an epileptic attack and tell them how they can help (what number to call and how to help at the pre-hospital stage);
- Avoid stress and overtime work;
- Wear comfortable clothes;
- Have an extra set of clothes at work, if you have to change clothes.
When medical aid is optional
- An epileptic attack lasts no more than 5 minutes;
- The patient comes to life and does not start a new attack;
- The patient during an epileptic assault did not injure himself.
When medical aid is mandatory
- An epileptic attack occurred for the first time in life;
- Doubting that this is an epileptic attack;
- Attack time more than 5 minutes;
- The patient has respiratory function impairment;
- Coming to mind after an attack is carried out too slowly;
- The next attack occurred immediately after the previous one;
- An epileptic attack occurred in water;
- An assault occurred with a pregnant woman;
- During an epileptic attack, the patient was injured.
Peculiarities of Behavior in Provision of Pre-Care
- In water: pull a person, trying to keep his head above the surface of the water, to restore airway patency and start resuscitation; Artificial respiration mouth in the mouth combined with indirect massage of the heart.
- In transport: release the nearest seats, bring them in a lying position; Put the victim on the side, straighten your legs, arrange your arms along the body, and provide free breathing.
- Remove all items that are in close proximity to the patient: electrical appliances, barbed-cutting items, put a soft, flat item under your head (a pillow, a bag, a jacket).
- Leave your mouth alone (do not lay objects, do not try to squeeze the jaw, do not fill the liquid until a person comes to mind)
- Undo the clothes, untie a tie, loosen the strap.
- If an attack occurs with a stranger, you must find in his speeches the documents confirming the possible disease, or an identification bracelet.
- Record the start time of an epileptic attack to set its duration.
- Do not leave the person on the scene until you come to your senses.
- Call for urgent help.