One third of the Earth's population is infected with Koch's wand.
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by tuberculous mycobacteria. It is believed that at the moment the carrier of infection is every third person on the planet. Often, the disease proceeds in a hidden form, but in every tenth case it becomes active. In the absence of treatment, half of the patients with an active form of tuberculosis die.
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by tuberculous mycobacteria. The carrier of infection to date is every third person on the planet. Often, the disease proceeds in a concealed form, practically not showing itself. In 1 out of 10 cases tuberculosis goes into active form. In the absence of treatment, half of the patients with an active form of tuberculosis die.
Who is to blame?
Pathogens - Mycobacterium tuberculosis (She is the wand of Koch, named after the name of its pioneer, German microbiologist Robert Koch). Infection is usually transmitted by airborne droplets in contact with a sick person (cough, sneezing, talking). Other ways of infection - contact, nutritional (through the mucous membrane) or transplacental (from mother to fetus during pregnancy) - are found much less often.
What happens when infected?
Most often mycobacterium affects the lungs. In the hidden form of the disease can not be detected in any way. The immune system can even destroy the cell of inflammation - there will remain a calcine, a site, "fossilized" at the expense of deposits of calcium salts. True, it happens that Koch's wand exists in Kalintsat for many years. And if at some point the immune system of the organism ceases to cope with multiplying mycobacteria, the first symptoms of tuberculosis appear: weakness, fatigue, apathy, low-grade temperature (up to 37.5 0 C), night sweats. Often increased lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy). The active form of pulmonary tuberculosis (the outdated name of "dryness") manifests itself as protracted attacks of cough with sputum, general weakness and weight loss. In the later stages of the disease, hemoptysis is also noted.
Mycobacterium can "heal" and other organs: kidneys, skin, bones, intestines, genitourinary system, lymph nodes. In this case, the so-called "cold" tuberculous inflammation develops - extrapulmonary tuberculosis (the outdated name "butterflies", because it looks like a lot of tubercles (granuloma)).
Tuberculosis in children
Children are especially vulnerable to mycobacterium. Due to the immaturity of the immune system in children up to 2 years of age, severe forms of the disease are developing, in which the infection spreads throughout the body (billions of tuberculosis, tuberculous meningitis, etc.). In older children, pulmonary tuberculosis usually develops. By its manifestations (long cough more than 3 weeks and low-grade temperature), the disease is similar to prolonged ARD or bronchitis.
Diagnosis of tuberculosis
For the diagnosis of tuberculosis, screening programs are conducted with the Mantoux test, fluorography, radiography, microbiological examination, as well as determination of DNA of mycobacterium by PCR.
Due to the fact that in Ukraine, the Mantu test (skin tuberculin test) is a mandatory stage of preventive diagnosis of tuberculosis, in children and adolescents the disease can be detected and treated at an early stage. With a positive result of the Mantu test, refinement of the diagnosis is carried out by means of fluorography.
The number of drugs that can kill Koch's spleen is steadily declining every year. The poem is now directed to a PCR study to determine the resistance spectrum of the pathogen prior to the appointment of antibiotics.
When detecting a TB agent, the drug treatment is carried out: multicomponent antituberculous chemotherapy. That is, because of the high susceptibility of the bacterium to develop resistance (resistance) to drugs, not only antibiotics are prescribed, but several different ones at once. Duration of therapy is not less than 6 months. In violation of the rules of taking dasgs may develop a primary resistance. In the presence of any form of resistance, there is a need to include in the course of treatment drugs of the second, third and subsequent generations. In this case, treatment will last much longer.
All persons who are in contact with a patient are obliged to send to the survey.
In addition to medical therapy in the treatment of tuberculosis, sanatorium and spa treatment is effective. When tuberculosis of the lungs of mycobacterium, select areas poorly supplied with oxygen - most often, these are the upper lobes of the lungs. The scattered air of sanatoriums located in the mountains makes the lungs work more actively. It increases the flow of oxygen (improves oxygenation) and inhibits the processes of reproduction of mycobacteria. Urban substitution of the respiratory respiration is hyperbaric (under high pressure) oxygenation.
In particularly difficult cases, a surgical operation to remove part of the affected lung and the imposition of artificial pneumothorax may be required for the treatment of tuberculosis.