Malignant neoplasms (cancer) of the large intestine often develop from polyps.
Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of death throughout the world. As a rule, it starts with a polyp. In the majority of cases, the tumor does not manifest itself, grows slowly and, until it reaches large sizes, asymptomatic. However, cancer of the colon can be prevented, and when detected at an early stage, it is well treated.
Development of colon cancer from polyps
Polyp - tumors on the mucous membrane, abnormal growth of the epithelium. Often, polyps are not malignant, but later can be reborn.
Polyps can be:
- Hyperplastic - such polyps do not lead to cancer;
- Glandularis - these polyps are associated with a high degree of cancer and are considered precancerous;
The higher the size of the polyp, the higher the risk of a malignant tumor. The more polyps, the higher the probability of cancer.
The probability of developing colon cancer also increases when inflammatory bowel disease, for example, with Crohn's disease or nonspecific ulcerative colitis. At the same time changes in tissues lead to the development of dysplasia - the cells are no longer normal, but not cancerous.
Diagnosis of colon cancer
Colon cancer can be asymptomatic. Therefore, even in the absence of symptoms, regular examination is required, since early detection is the key to successful treatment.
In addition to anamnesis and review, the doctor may conduct a series of surveys for the early diagnosis of cancer and polyps.
- Rectangular microscopy. Procedure for the examination of the rectum. The examination can determine polyps, cancer and other pathologies in the sigmoid and rectum. Also, the procedure allows you to make a biopsy (take a sample of tissue) for examination under a microscope.
- Colonoscopy. The procedure allows you to explore the entire colon and rectum, as well as remove polyps and send them to research.
- Irygoscopy An intestinal x-ray with its previous content filling with contrast media with an enema (barium enema with double filling) shows the outline of the intestinal wall to detect the pathology of the colon and rectum.
- CT-colonography. A special X-ray examination (also called a virtual colonoscopy) of the entire colon with CT (computer tomography). It takes less time and is less invasive than other types of research. However, when a polyp is detected, it is necessary to conduct a colonoscopy.
To prevent the development of cancer, when detecting polyps in the colon, they should be biopsied and sent to a laboratory for analysis under a microscope.