Normally, an adult has 28 to 32 teeth, and such a difference in their number is justified by so-called wisdom teeth, which may or may not be normal. But in some cases, a large number of teeth can be detected in the baby's or adult's cavity. It would seem that this is bad? But are those people who were diagnosed with "polyodontia" rejoiced? Most likely, no, because excess teeth, the presence of super-complex teeth entails a number of negative consequences.
A bit of terminology: what is "polyodontia"
In translation from the Greek "odontose" means a tooth, the prefix "poly" speaks of a plural, a large number. In the literal translation of polyodontia - many teeth, more than normal numbers. Such a term can be found in medical textbooks and at the reception of a dentist.
But along with this term, an abnormalities have acquired a large number of synonyms: hypertrocemia, supranentium, polynocutaneous and supercomplex teeth. The latter term can also often be heard in the dentist's chair, more often at a child's appointment, but this is usually the case in children in a changing bite.
All terms reflect the essence of anomalies of development, namely, the presence of more teeth than normal. In the milk bite of 20 teeth - on each jaw 4 incisors, 2 fangs and 4 molars. In a constant bite in an adult can be up to 32 teeth, and the presence of even 28 teeth is considered the norm. On each jaw adult person has 4 incisors, 2 fangs, 4 premolars, 4 molars, and not everyone can see another 2 molars, which are called the teeth of wisdom.
And in case if in the cavity of an oral one at least one extra tooth is cut out, it is possible to speak boldly about anomalies of development - polyodontium.
Polyodontia in humans: species
Despite one of the essence of the problem - the presence of excessive number of teeth, there are several types of polyodontia, they can be classified based on several features.
The first sign is the location of supercomplex teeth. Poliodontia in humans may be typical, also called aativistic. This type is characterized by the presence of excessive number of teeth in the tooth row that do not exceed its limit. This kind of polyodontia, with a stretch, but nevertheless, can be called a physiological problem.
Do not forget about our ancestors, which had a powerful chewing gum, with a large number of teeth, compared with the modern man. In some cases, the "legacy" of ancestors makes itself felt, and in the cavity of the mouth you can observe more than 32 teeth.
The second type is atypical polyodontia. For this kind of anomalies, the location of the teeth outside the tooth row is typical, and the teeth are cut out of the alveolar wells of the teeth. In some cases, teeth may even cut through the outside of the mouth.
In addition, polyodontia in humans can be true and false. The false, or pseudopolodontium, is mainly associated with the preservation of milk teeth in an adult, when for some reason the milk tooth did not leave the mouth at the right time and remained firmly standing in the mouth of an adult already.
If you do not remove such a tooth, if it does not create a bite pathology, then it can fully perform its functions and stay permanently in constant bite, regardless of the patient's age. There have been cases when milk teeth were recorded in patients in the age group of 55 to 60 years old.
Another variant of the erroneous polyodontium is the eruption of teeth with anomalies of development, such as dual, bristly teeth standing next to it. Anomalies in the development of teeth there is a huge amount.
The term "real polydony" completely reflects the essence of the problem. True polyodontya can be explained by the formation and subsequent eruption of excessive rudiments of permanent teeth as a result of various causes.
Polyodontia in humans refers to birth defects in the development of the dental-jaw system. According to statistics, more than a third of cases of diagnosing supercomplex teeth refers to genetic predisposition. This can be explained by the influence of teratogenic factors on the fetus in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, when the laying of milk and permanent teeth occurs.
Under the teratogenic factors is the violation of embryonic development as a result of aggressive factors, such as chemical, including associated with some drugs, alcohol, drugs or the adverse environment, the influence of biological agents - various viruses and others. As a result of these factors, various vices and anomalies of development are formed.
To date, there is no clear and complete explanation for the formation of excessive number of teeth, the approach to this problem should be large and versatile. Although polyodontia should be considered as the result of increased production of dental plaques in the stages of the formation of the dental-jaw system. And the effect on the formation of these plates may be different, ranging from genetic predisposition to pathology of the endocrine system of the mother and the pathology of pregnancy.
Most often you can diagnose atypical polyodontia, in which extra, overcomplete teeth are located outside the tooth row. This arrangement significantly and negatively affects the aesthetic aspect of the smile, but it is not the worst consequences.
The presence of supercomplex teeth pathologically affects the formation of bite. The fact is that the eruption of extra teeth makes displacing adjacent teeth. In rare cases, eruption of supercomplex teeth does not cause any blemishes in bite.
Most often this is the front group of teeth - incisors and fangs. The appearance of an extra tooth causes the complete teeth to rotate around its axis or cut through the heavens or on it. As a result, suffering not only aesthetics, but also bite and chew food. Variations of pathology through supercomplex teeth are huge.
Another pathology that can provoke polyodont is the retention of complete teeth. Often, extra teeth are on the way of cutting out the complete teeth and preventing them from cutting, as a result, complete teeth can occupy an abnormal position in the body of the jaw and do not creep at all. The whole problem is that the anomalous position of the complete tooth in the body of the jaw can provoke the pathology of adjacent teeth, up to their loss.
Treatment of polyandonia in humans, as well as most anomalies of the maxillofacial area, is mainly surgical. But treatment does not end with elimination of pathology, it is necessary to correct also the consequences, which bear the presence of such a pathology. It is about orthodontic treatment.
All over-complex teeth need to be removed, especially if the supplemented tooth is underdeveloped, which in most cases happens. In rare cases, overcomplete teeth are not removed and left in the oral cavity. The main indications for the preservation of the supercomplex tooth is the underdevelopment of the complete tooth, which is still in the body of the jaw and can not be cut.
Often, eruption of super-complex teeth occurs in childhood, and when deciding on the removal of extra teeth, it is necessary to take into account the location of the tooth, the age of the child and the degree of formation of the roots of the teeth. In the event that the complete and overcomplete tooth is cut out, the latter should be removed without delay, as the presence of an extra tooth will provoke bite pathology.
After eliminating the root cause of the anomaly, namely supercomplex teeth, depending on the current pathology of bite start orthodontic treatment. His methods and methods are strictly individual.