Manifestations of pituitary adenine depend on the type of tumor: hormonal-active or hormonally-inactive adenoma.
Depending on the main manifestations, two main types of disorders are distinguished: endocrine-metabolic syndrome and ophthalmo-neurological manifestations.
Endocrine-metabolic syndrome and its symptoms
Mostly due to excessive synthesis of pituitary hormones and damage to tissue adjacent to the tumor. Sometimes the symptoms that are caused by excessive activation of the target organs (for example, with thyrotropinomas are possible manifestations of thyrotoxicosis, with cortictropinoma - the symptoms of the Itsenko-Cushing disease) are predominant.
Symptoms of ophthalmo-neurological manifestation
Evidence of the direct effect (pressure) of adenoma on the following structures.
- Adjacent fabrics. So, at the pressure on the optic nerve crossings (chiasma), atrophy of the optic nerves, changes in visual fields and other disorders may occur.
- Diaphragm of the Turkish saddle (with tumor growth upward). There is a constant dull headaches in the area of eye pits, temporal and frontal areas, poorly removed by conventional analgesics.
- Cranial nerves located on the sides of the Turkish saddle (3-6 pairs). Appear dichotomy in the eyes, weakness of the oculomotor muscles.
- The bottom of the Turkish saddle (with its refinement and the spread of adenoma on the sinuses of wedge-shaped and lattice bones). There is a feeling of nasal congestion with the expiration of a clear liquid (liquor) from it.
The course of the disease and complications of the pituitary adenoma
Often noted spontaneous treatment with hormonal-active tumor prolactinoma. Usually this is due to changes in the hormonal background and more often occurs after delivery, although during the pregnancy, the tumor may increase.
Symptoms of the pituitary adenoma also can beat intratumor hemorrhages - a serious, but life-threatening complication, which is manifested suddenly by a strong headache and visual impairment.
Another complication of pituitary adenoma is the acceleration of tumor growth under the influence of such adverse factors as stress, cerebrovascular accident, acute infectious diseases, etc. The most serious complications include malignancy and metastasis (more common in corticotropinoma).
Other types of complications are more related to hormonal disorders in target organs (thyroid gland, adrenal glands, gonads, etc.) and their consequences.
Symptoms of adenoma of the pituitary gland:
- Galactorrhea (milk excretion outside the period of lactation) occurs most often,
- Menstrual disorder
- Sometimes infertility.
Frequent occurrence of acne and a tendency to hypertrichosis (excessive hemorrhage). Possible oily seborrhea of the scalp and obesity. Ophthalmologic disorders occur even with small tumor size.
In men, in addition to galactorrhoea, the following symptoms of pituitary adenoma may develop:
- Gynecomastia (increase in the volume of the thoracic glands),
- Violated sexual function,
- Impotence develops.
The appearance of ophthalmic neurological disorders in men suggests the presence of a tumor that has gone beyond the Turkish saddle.
If the tumor begins to develop in infancy or adolescence, there is the development of gigantism, or acromegaly (enlargement of the soft tissues of the predominantly protruding parts of the body - the nose, chin, fingers of the extremities, etc.).
At the same time, children and adults may develop obesity, hyperplasia of the thyroid gland, diabetes mellitus, and decreased ability to work. Often noted excessive sweating, the appearance of warts on the skin, papillomas, excessive skin secretion.
Later develops neurological symptoms (polyneuropathy, disturbances in the limbs) and visual disturbances.
Corticotropinoma and their symptoms
These rare pituitary adenomas are accompanied by manifestations of the Itsenko-Cushing's disease. They can be zlokachestvlyatsya, metastasize and accompanied by severe disorders of metabolism and hormonal background, changes in pigmentation of the skin, as well as mental disorders. Neurological and ophthalmologic disorders occur rarely.
Gonadotropinoma and thyrotropinomas
Rare tumors that can cause the development of both thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism. May be accompanied by underdevelopment of the gonads at the onset of the disease in childhood and adolescence. In adults, galactorrhea, visual impairment and neurological symptoms are possible.
When the pituitary adenine is detected in the early stages, an accurate diagnosis of the type of hormonal disorders and adequate therapy, the prognosis of the disease that occurs in adulthood is favorable.
If the adenoma of the pituitary gland originated in childhood, and its treatment began in an adult condition, the prognosis of the disease is less favorable, and some manifestations of the disease may be irreversible.