We know the world around us through the senses, feel the heat and cold, taste and smell, pressure and sounds. However, some diseases can lead to loss or sensitivity changes.
Sensation - one of the basic functions of mental activity, through which we can distinguish and evaluate the properties of objects and phenomena surrounding us.
The key role in this process is played by sensory organs and receptors (visual, taste, tactile, auditory, olfactory), through which the brain receives information about the surrounding world. There are also interoreceptors that transmit information about the state of the internal organs.
Violation of processes of sensory perception leads to changes in sensations - increase or decrease in sensitivity or inadequate perception of external influences.
Hypersensitivity to external influences, or hyperesthesia, can develop with severe intoxication, asthenia and traumatic lesions of the nervous system.
Most often there is an increased sensitivity associated with vision and hearing. In such cases, sounds are perceived as unbearably loud, and the light - as too bright.
Hyperesthesia may also affect other sensations: tactile, thermal, olfactory. Smells become unpleasant and obsessive, the touch causes severe discomfort, both mental and physical. Hyperthesia can also be manifested in a state of abstinence and depression.
The weakening of normal sensitivity, or hypesthesia, is characteristic of asthenic and depressive states, as well as for conditions accompanied by a disturbance of consciousness. The threshold of sensitivity is elevated, the sensations become weaker, less clear and muffled.
Anesthesia - loss of or loss of sensitivity associated with damage or disorder of the analyzer function at any level: from damage to receptors to impaired processing of signals entering the brain.
Anesthesia is accompanied by loss of skin sensitivity, inactivity to odors, sounds, touches, visual images or pain. Loss of pain sensitivity (analgesia) can develop with deep depression, conversion disorder, acute psychosis, etc.
Pathology of sensations can also manifest itself in the form of distortions of sensitivity.
Seennostopathy - painful, difficult and prolonged sensations that arise either in the surface areas of the body (under the skin) or in the internal organs, can be migratory, appearing either in one, or in another part of the body.
These feelings are extremely unusual and unpleasant, difficult to describe patients. Often, senestopathy is described in the form of metaphorical comparisons: "as if the brain floats in a fluid", "the body seems to be a paper," etc. Sestopathy differ from the symptoms of somatic diseases without the presence of any pathologies from the internal organs, which is revealed during the examination.
Sestopathy can be manifested as a separate symptom, but may accompany mental disorders: depression, delusions, psycho-organic syndrome, schizophrenia, etc.
Sestopathy is a persistent and stubborn disorder that can last for years. In elderly people, senestopathy occurs less often and is characterized by greater intensity and variety of manifestations.