Such disturbances of the motor function as paresis and paralysis are found in various diseases of the nervous system, especially in the case of acute cerebrovascular disruption - stroke. But their causes may be other nosologies.
Paresis or paralysis is a violation of the motor function, which reduces the force of movements and their volume. Paresis and paralysis develop in the event of impaired nerve impulses on the motorways from the cerebral cortex to the muscles.
Paralysis is a complete loss of the possibility of arbitrary movements in the limbs or muscle groups. Paresis movements are possible, but their strength and volume are noticeably reduced.
Types of paralysis and paresis
There are spastic (central) and lethargic (peripheral) paralysis and paresis, which have different signs. In lingering peripheral paralysis/paresis, the muscle tone is greatly reduced, tendon reflexes disappear. With prolonged lingering paralysis there is pronounced muscular atrophy.
Spastic paralysis/paresis is characterized by increased muscle tone and increased tendon reflexes. Reflexes appear, usually found in adults.
Causes of paresis and paralysis
Symptoms depend on the level at which the nerve impulse to the muscles was interrupted. If broken nerve cells in the brain develop spastic paralysis/paresis. If damage to the motor nerve cells of the spinal cord or spinal nerves develops, then there are symptoms of slack paralysis.
At the level of the central nervous system, the violation of motor impulses occurs more often with acute cerebrovascular disorders - stroke. When a stroke occurs, the destruction or nerve cells, from which the impulses go to the muscles, or the initial segments of the nerve pathways to the motor apparatus, causing paresis and paralysis.
With tumors, abnormal movements may develop if the tumor compresses the corresponding structures in the brain. Similarly, craniocerebral injuries also lead to a violation of any motor function. Spinal injuries, accompanied by damage to the spinal cord, can cause mixed symptoms among different muscle groups of paralysis/paresis.
Motor nerve cells of the spinal cord are damaged in lateral amyotrophic sclerosis - neurodegenerative diseases of obscure etiology. The main features of BAS are steadily growing lingering muscular paresis, muscular atrophy, fasciculations (muscular "twitching"). In most cases, the disease debuted at the age of 50 years.
As mentioned above, sluggish paralysis/paresis develops with damage to the spinal nerves, nerve plexus and nerve trunks. Such disorders can occur in the traumas of these structures, with their compression adjacent to the tumor.
In general, the definition of the type of paralysis/paresis and its causes are not particularly difficult when conducted in the context of general neurological examination. Depending on the cause of motor disorders, palliative or radical treatment may be prescribed.