There are such types of otitis media: external, middle ear and inner ear (labyrinthitis). The most common is the otitis media of the middle ear.
Who is sick with otitis media of the middle ear
To the middle ear refers to the drum cavity and comes out of her eustachian tube. Often, children with thoracic and preschool age (from 3 months to 6-8 years) often suffer from otitis media, due to the anatomical structure of the middle ear - the auditory tube in children has no bends, and this greatly facilitates the infection of the infection. In a baby who is almost always in a horizontal position, otitis can occur due to ingestion when feeding milk from the nasopharynx to the middle ear. In the future, the structure of the ear changes, and in otitis there are other causes.
Types of otitis media
Any illness ending in -it speaks of inflammation.
Distinguish the following types of otitis media:
- Middle ear
- And the inner ear (labyrinthitis).
The most common is the otitis media of the middle ear.
To the middle ear refers to the drum cavity and comes out of her eustachian tube. Often children with infantile stomach (from 3 months) to 6-8 years are suffering from otitis media. This is due to the anatomical structure of the middle ear - the auditory tube in the child is almost straight, does not have bends, which greatly facilitates the infection there. In a baby who is almost always in a horizontal position, otitis can occur due to ingestion when feeding milk from the nasopharynx to the middle ear.
In the future, the structure of the ear changes, and otitis may cause other causes.
Causes of middle ear otitis media
The main reasons for the development of otitis media are:
- Influenza and acute respiratory diseases, in which the mucous membrane affects, mucus drain and occlusion of the auditory tube are disturbed.
- The presence of adenoids that can squeeze the eustachian tube, chronic diseases of the nasopharynx (tonsillitis, sinusitis, sinusitis), broncho-pulmonary disease.
- Unsampled immunity in children, reduced immunity in adults.
- Sharp atmospheric pressure fluctuations when flying in a plane or immersing in depth (divers, submarines).
- Complications after infectious (scarlet fever) or viral (measles) diseases.
- Allergic tendency of an organism.
Pathogens otitis media of the middle ear
Pathogens often have different pathogens and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms:
- Pseudopharyngeal stick
Onyaktiviziruetsya with inflammation of the mucous membrane of the middle ear. Often, bacteria fall into the middle ear because of an eustachian tube with coughing, sneezing, sore throat. Sometimes they can penetrate the middle ear through the blood vessels, very rarely, through the damaged tympanic membrane.
There are two forms of otitis:
Stages of acute otitis media
Acute otitis media usually lasts for several days. There are several stages of acute otitis media:
- Eustachitis - there is a tingling of the ears, a noise in the anus, the temperature is normal.
- Catarrhal stage - develops aseptic inflammation of the mucous membrane, which is accompanied by sharp pain in the ear, a feeling of laceration. The temperature is stable.
- Preperorotiveness stage - characterized by the formation of pus in the middle ear area, the pain sharply increases, it can be given to the head and neck area, the ear is noticeably reduced, the temperature is higher than the subfebrile.
- Post-perforated stage - characterized by a decrease in pain syndrome and the release of pus from the ear (this indicates a breakthrough pus through the tympanic membrane). Temperatures are normalized, but noise and hearing loss remain.
- Reparative stage - in place of perforation of the tympanum, a scar occurs, the inflammatory process is stopped.
Signs of otitis media
Signs of chronic otitis are:
- Feeling of stiffness of the ear
- Periodically there is pain in the ear area,
- Genetically out of the ear
- Progressive hearing loss (development of hearing loss).
Treatment for otitis media
Acute otitis is well treated. In cases where he was treated incorrectly or not treated at all, the probable development of complications. The main complications of otitis are:
- Hearing loss (tiredness),
- Perforation of the tympanic membrane.
If the disease progresses, more serious complications may occur, such as encephalitis, meningitis.
Treatment for otitis media is performed by an otolaryngologist. The patient is converted to bed rest, to relieve pain, give analgesics, if necessary, prescribe antibiotics or sulfanilamide preparations, rinse with solutions of antiseptics. From the first hours of the disease and before the phlegm begins, heat procedures are prescribed. To remove swelling of the nasal mucosa, vasoconstrictive drops are used (naftizin, etc.). Treatment of otitis should be done within 8-10 days.
When ineffectiveness of conservative therapy is made paracentesis - a puncture of the tympanic membrane, which allows you to release pus from the middle ear outside and prevent the development of complications.
Prevention of otitis media
Prevention is to temper and strengthen immunity.
It is necessary to teach the child to properly smoke (each nostril in turn), to try not to let the undead during illness, babies need to remove mucus from the nose with a special pear.