Mycosis - a group of diseases of the skin and its appendages (hair, nails), caused by pathogenic fungi.
Mushrooms are lower plants, they do not contain chlorophyll and can form threads. Pairing yarns is called mycelium.
Mushrooms can exist in two forms. In the form of a vegetative form, they live and multiply, and under adverse environmental conditions, they enter into a state of controversy.
Disputes are very resistant to the effects of harmful factors, because their metabolism is reduced. In this form, the pathogen can be stored for many years. Under favorable conditions, the mushroom passes into a vegetative form and continues its livelihoods.
There are more than 100 thousand types of fungi. Of these, only 500 species are pathogenic to humans.
Ways of getting infected
Each fungal disease has its own path of infection. All of them are divided into two large groups: direct and indirect ways.
When direct infection the pathogen enters the body directly from a person, an animal, a plant, and also from the soil. An indirect way is to infect through common objects used by the patient and on whom the pathogen remains.
Factors contributing to infection
The risk of developing fungal illness increases with skin injuries, through which the mushroom easily penetrates into the body.
People who do not comply with the rules of personal hygiene are more likely to suffer. The spread of infection is also facilitated by a damp and hot climate.
People with low immunity who take hormones and cytostatics, the elderly, suffering from concomitant diseases of the endocrine system, hyperhidrosis, are more susceptible to fungal infection.
An important factor is the biological properties of the fungus itself. Each species has its own level of aggression in relation to the human body.
Types of mycoses
All mycoses are divided into several large groups:
- Keratomicosis - these include fungal diseases that affect only the most superficial, horny layer of the skin (for example, scrub licks).
- Dermatomycosis - not only skin, but also hair and nails are affected. This group includes, in particular, mycoses of the stop.
- Candidiasis - the target for the pathogen is skin, mucous membranes, nails, internal organs.
- Deep fungal infections - Severe diseases occur, in which mostly internal organs and mucous membranes are affected.
- Pseudomycosis - earlier the diseases of this group were attributed to fungal lesions, but later it became clear that their pathogens are not related to fungi (for example, actinomycosis, erythrazma).
Diagnosis and treatment of mycoses
The treatment of mycoses is done by a dermatologist. In most typical cases, diagnosis is not difficult, since the clinical picture of the disease has a number of characteristic symptoms.
To confirm the diagnosis, a microscopic examination of the material from the lesions is performed, during which the mycelial fungus is detected. It can determine the type of pathogen.
If this is not enough, conduct a cultural study, during which the culture of the fungus is isolated. This allows you to finally determine the diagnosis and prescribe proper treatment.
Modern dermatology has a number of fungal and non-toxic to the human body antifungal drugs. They exist in different dosage forms: for local and systemic use.
For the treatment of mild fungal infection, it is sometimes enough to pass the course of local therapy with antifungal ointments, creams, varnishes, lotions.
If the process is widespread, it involves hair, nails, and internal organs, then it is necessary to receive systemic drugs in the form of pills, and sometimes injections.
Depending on the type of fungal disease, the duration of treatment varies from two weeks to six months.