The most common diseases of the biliary tract are dyskinesia of the biliary tract, cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, cholangitis and postcholecystectomy syndrome. Every year, the percentage of patients suffering from these diseases increases.
The bile is a yellow, brown or greenish bitter tasteful liquid that is produced by the liver and accumulated in the gallbladder.
It participates in the emulsion of fats in the body, absorption of vitamins, helps in relocating food through the intestine, increases the activity of pancreatic enzymes, enhances hydrolysis and absorption of proteins and carbohydrates.
The ovary has bacteriostatic properties. An important role is played by bile in absorption from the intestines of cholesterol, amino acids and calcium salts.
Dyskinesia of the biliary tract
One of the most common diseases of the biliary tract is dyskinesia of the biliary tract. This is a group of diseases of different etiologies, in which the pathological process is localized in the biliary tract.
Patients report attacks of severe pain in the right hypochondrium. They are the first signs of a violation of the outflow of bile from the gall bladder and the development of diseases of the biliary tract.
If the muscles of the gall bladder are not working properly, then the bile begins to get poorly into the duodenum (either in an insufficient amount or in excess) - a phenomenon of dyskinesia.
The main manifestation of cholelithiasis is the presence of stones in the gall bladder and its ducts. Causes of stone formation:
- Cholesterol disturbance;
- Violation of the exchange of bile acids and bilirubin;
- Inflammation of the gallbladder;
- Stagnation of bile in gall bladder;
- Irregular food;
- Taking some medications;
- Sedentary lifestyle.
Such a fairly widespread disease of bile ducts as cholelithiasis, women most often suffer.
Cholecystitis and cholangitis
Cholecystitis is one of the most common diseases of the biliary tract. It arises as a complication of cholelithiasis and when the germ cell is penetrated into the walls of the gall bladder. Sometimes it's a result of overeating, the abuse of fatty foods, fried foods and alcohol.
Symptoms are similar to other common diseases of the biliary tract and liver: there is a dull aching pain in the gall bladder, bitterness in the mouth, blistering.
Cholangitis often occurs as a complication of cholecystitis and is an inflammation of the bile duct. They can also be considered an independent disease of biliary tract.
Postcholecystectomy syndrome is a postoperative complication of the removal of the gallbladder.
The most common diseases of the biliary tract require urgent treatment, their diagnosis is based on complaints, objective examination, data from instrumental studies (ultrasound abdominal cavity, data from laboratory tests and analyzes).
The method of treating diseases of the biliary tract directly depends on the stage and form of the disease.