Types of operations for breast cancer, radio and chemotherapy, prognosis.
Removal of a tumor of a mammary gland is carried out at all operable tumors. Currently, the radical operation of mastectomy is much less frequent, and instead of adjuvant therapy (combined) with modern high-performance drugs in combination with radiotherapy before and after surgery, which prevents metastasis and relapse of cancer.
The most common types of operations on the mammary gland
- Lampectomy is a minimal volume operation, during which the cartilage of the tumor node is carried out with the surrounding tissue. This operation is gentle, so it is always combined with radiotherapy.
- Quadrantectomy or segmentectomy - this operation is similar to the previous, but the volume of tissue is removed at it more, after it also carry out radiotherapy.
- Mastectomy is a more radical operation in which the mammary gland is completely removed, and in some cases it also has a small muscle. The indications for this operation are the large size of the tumor, the tumor in or under the nipple area. At the same time, the lymph nodes are removed from the mammary gland, and after the operation radiotherapy is performed.
- A surgical surgical procedure is performed simultaneously with a mastectomy, but sometimes - after a while. To do this, use plastic with your own muscles or implant.
Very often used after surgical treatment to destroy the remaining metastases. The axillary basement and a specific area of the mammary gland are irradiated.
It can be carried out in the form of remote radiation therapy (outpatient) or as internal radiotherapy in the hospital (in the gland tissue implant a source of ionizing radiation for 3-4 days).
Conducted after surgical treatment to prevent tumor recurrence, as well as in the presence of metastases. Assigned chemotherapy in combination with hormonal therapy.
It is most commonly used in women in the post-menopausal period, which reduces mortality by 25%.
Hormones block the mechanisms of stimulation of cancer cells by estrogen in the female body, which leads to the cessation or slowing of growth of the tumor.
Young women usually carry out ovarian removal or irradiate them to reduce the production of estrogen. There are many methods of treatment and a large list of hormonal drugs that are individually selected by the doctor for combined therapy.
Young women have a good effect on adjuvant therapy. There are a variety of chemotherapy regimens, with different combinations of drugs, as well as radiation therapy and hormonal treatment, with surgical treatment.
The prognosis depends on the stage of cancer and the time when the treatment started:
- I stage - survival rate 84%;
- Stage II - Survival 71%;
- Stage III - Survival 48%;
- IV stage (metastases) - survival rate 18%.