Severe disease, the main carrier of which is mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles.
Malaria is an acute protozoan infection, the carriers of which are mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. In addition to the bite of an infected mosquito, the infection can be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy, as well as transfusion of contaminated blood or the use of contaminated needles and syringes.
Malaria (it is a swamp fever) - one of the most ancient infectious diseases of a person. The first mention of it was discovered in the Chinese chronicles around 2700 BC In the seventeenth century, Europe discovered a bark of honeybee, which malaria was treated by the Indians - the descendants of the Incas. And at the end of the XIX century, the French identified an active component of it - quinine. At the beginning of the 20th century, doctors even treated syphilis, skillfully manipulating malaria attacks of extremely high temperature with quinine. At high temperatures, syphilis progressed to the latent stage, and the course of the disease slowed down. True, not all patients experienced such methods of treatment. In the description of the life cycle of malarial plasmodia in 1902, the Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded.
The cause of malaria
The causative agent of the disease is the simplest microorganism of the genus Plasmodium. Different types of malarial plasmodia differ from each other by the duration of individual stages of the life cycle. Therefore, depending on which of them has become the cause of the disease, are allocated Three-day malaria (Plasmodium vivax) Four-day malaria (P.malariae), the most common of all Tropical malaria (P. falciparum) and Oval malaria (P.ovale). And recently, another, fifth species - P. knowlesi was discovered.
Malaria is widespread in Asia, Africa and South America. Not so long ago, individual cases of malaria in the Moscow region were exclusively imported. However, in recent years, doctors regret to state that Central Ukraine is acquired by its own cells of malaria, including in the Moscow region. This is due to a violation of the regime of drainage of marshes and the emergence of favorable conditions for mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles, which is the intermediate host for malarial plasmodia.
Symptoms of malaria
A characteristic feature of malaria is repeated through precisely defined intervals of attacks of fever with chills, severe headache and joint pain, vomiting and convulsions. Due to the destruction of erythrocytes there is anemia (anemia) and hemoglobinuria (the allocation of hemoglobin in the urine, which gives it a reddish tinge). The liver is increasing. It also increases in size of the spleen (splenomegaly), which threatens its rupture. Cerebral ischemia may develop.
Diagnosis of malaria
The pathogen is determined by the results of cytological examination of the patient's blood, as well as by various methods of rapid diagnosis of malaria. In its manifestation, the disease is similar to yellow fever and Dengue fever, visceral leishmaniasis, as well as leptospirosis and brucellosis.
In the absence of treatment, there is a high risk of developing acute renal and acute respiratory insufficiency, rupture of the spleen and coma. In this case, mortality from some varieties of malaria (for example, tropical) reaches 40%.
To date, effective antiprotozoal preparations have been developed, designed to destroy malaria plasmodia, so that malaria is successfully and effectively treated. True, some types of plasmodia have partial resistance to drugs, therefore an additional blood test is needed after the completion of treatment. Microscopy of blood is performed every 1-2 weeks for 1.5 months after recovery.
When spleen is damaged, there is a need for surgical treatment.
Prevention of malaria
The acquired immunity is very unstable and practically does not protect against re-infection. Therefore, doctors recommend visiting malaria areas to take anti-malaria drugs. Given that the effect of such drugs does not appear immediately, they should begin to take 1-2 weeks before arriving in a potentially hazardous area and for another 1-4 weeks after leaving it.