Astrocytoma is a tumor of the brain (glioma), which develops from small star cells in the brain - astrocytes.
Manifestations of lung cancer depend on localization of the tumor, its magnitude and complications.
Frequent signs of tumor that grows in the bronchial lumen is nadsadnyy paroxysmal cough with small amounts of sputum streaked with blood (hemoptysis).
Patients are often concerned about the varying intensity of chest pain that is given in the shoulder, neck and amplified breathing motion.
Often, shortness of breath, the severity of which depends on tumor size and extent of damaged tissue. In the initial stage, shortness of breath worries the patient only when physical activity and deep breathing, but with the growth of the tumor, the development of atelectasis (the decline of the lungs), inflammatory changes and pleurisy, shortness of breath becomes constant and amplified, accompanied by wheezing. With involvement of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and marked hoarseness of voice and even their complete disappearance.
With the progression of tumor, and there are growing signs of intoxication: fever, severe weakness, fatigue, sweating, loss of appetite, weight loss, appearance of pain in the bones and muscles, marked deformity of the nail phalanx fingers type "drumsticks."
When you look at the chest you can notice the patient's lag when breathing and the smoothness of intercostal spaces, the severity of the subcutaneous venous network due to difficulty in the outflow of blood. With compression of the intrathoracic tumor of large veins, puffiness and cyanosis (cyanosis) of the face and neck appear.
- Blood tests of urine and blood, biochemical blood tests; - X-ray of the chest organs, computed tomography, MRI of the chest, pelvic bones, spine (for the exclusion of metastases); - bronchoscopy with sputum and biopsy; - Ultrasound of the abdominal cavity and pleural cavity; - in the presence of pleurisy - pleural puncture with subsequent microscopy.
The method and tactics of treatment is chosen by the oncologist depending on the stage of development of the tumor, its type and histology (type of cellular structure), the features of the clinical picture of the disease, the presence of metastases, the general state of the patient's health and the presence of concomitant diseases.
The main type of treatment is surgical (pneumonectomy, lobectomy - removal of the tumor together with a part of the lung and affected lymph nodes). 30% of operated patients live 5 years or more.
Radiation therapy is mainly performed with inoperable cancer or the presence of contraindications for surgery. Chemotherapy is performed before and after surgery, but it is contraindicated in severe anemia, exhaustion, the presence of complications, pulmonary tuberculosis.
Symptomatic therapy - analgesic, antibacterial drugs, antispasmodics, supportive therapy.