Listeriosis is an infectious disease from a group of zoonoses caused by bacteria by listeria. The most acute forms of listeriosis occur in the form of meningoencephalitis, sepsis, purulent meningitis. Chronic - more often in the form of inflammation of the urinary tract.
A person can become infected with listeria, mainly when using dairy products that have not undergone heat treatment, raw vegetables, and water. Other ways of transmission of the disease are possible, for example, sexual and vertical - the listeria can be transmitted from the mother to the child during the passage through the birth canal, as well as after delivery by airborne droplets or food.
The incubation period lasts from two to four weeks. Acute forms of the disease begin suddenly: the temperature rises, chills appear, muscle pain, irritability.
Clinical picture of listeriosis
The disease often passes with an exanthema. Rash is erythematous or large-apical, which thickens in the area of the largest joints.
With ironic forms, with the exception of everything else, pain and enlargement of peripheral lymph nodes appears.
In nervous forms it is possible to observe mignigialnoy symptomatology, and in some cases, and expressed signs of encephalitis. Spleen and liver are enlarged. Sometimes in the clinical picture the symptoms of acute endocarditis, pyelitis and gastroenteritis are at the forefront.
Newborn listeriosis is very difficult, with a fatal outcome of up to 50%. There is an inflammation of the respiratory tract, severe shortness of breath, fever, cyanosis. Spleen and liver are enlarged in size, in some patients jaundice appears.
In chronic forms of listeria, they can remain in the human body for a long time, without causing any clinical changes. Sometimes there is an aggravation in the form of manifestations of chronic pyelitis or influenza-like illnesses. With weakening of the immune system, they with some degree of probability can cause exacerbation, which proceeds as a generalized infection.
Diagnosis of listeriosis
The diagnosis of listeriosis is carried out mainly by two methods - bacteriological sowing and PCR.
Serologic diagnosis is insufficiently reliable - due to the large number of false positives. This is due to the antigenic affinity of staphylococci and listeria.
Treatment of listeriosis
When acute forms of the disease are prescribed antibiotics - tetracycline, erythromycin, penicillin. In the first three months of pregnancy do not prescribe tetracycline. In pregnancy, listeriosis can lead to serious damage to the embryo.
After postponed listeriosis meningoencephalitis, there can be expressed and persistent residual and pronounced phenomena from the central nervous system.