Leukemia (leukemia - proteinuria) is a systemic tumor of the blood (hemoblastosis), which occurs with the predominant lesions of the leukocyte sprout of the bone marrow.
For all forms of leukemia, the three main groups of syndromes are characterized:
- Infectious - Toxic Syndrome, mainly manifested in the form of a predisposition to various infectious and inflammatory processes due to reduced resistance of the body, impairment of immunity,
- Hemorrhagic syndrome, which manifests itself as a violation of blood clotting and a tendency to increased bleeding, hematoma, hemorrhage and even bleeding (as with hemorrhagic diathesis).
- Anemic syndrome, which manifests itself in varying degrees of hypoxia in organs and tissues in the form of pale skin and mucous membranes, dizziness, dyspnea, fatigue, etc. (As with anemia).
Features of the course of acute leukemia
The most common forms of acute leukemia are: myeloblastic, monoblast, pro-myelocytic, megakaryoblast, lymphocytic, undifferentiated and erythromyelosis, and others.
Acute leukemia is characterized by a consistent change in the stages of disease development:
- The initial stage most often begins with general weakness, a small subfebrile temperature, the appearance of pain in the muscles, bones and joints, headache, loss of appetite and nausea, emotional instability.
- The expanded stage (the first attack or relapse) proceeds against the background of severe weakness, severe pain in the muscles and bones, fever. On the skin and mucous membranes, small hemorrhages, fungal and ulcerous-necrotic lesions, as well as reddish nodule formations and plaques, with a predisposition to fusion appear unknowingly. Bleeding gums, nose, stomach, intestinal, uterine, hemorrhoidal bleeding may occur. In lymphoblastic leukemia, neurological disorders (neuroleukemia) often develop due to inflammation of the nerve roots, the development of meningoencephalitis, inflammation of the cranial nerves, and visual disturbances.
- Remsis: complete (with the normalization of the general condition, the content of blast cells in the bone marrow is not more than 5%, but not in peripheral blood) and incomplete (normalization of the general condition, but the number of blast cells in the bone marrow is more than 5%).
- Recovery - a complete remission lasting more than 5 years is observed in 50% of patients who have undergone intensive therapy.
- Relapse of acute leukemia develops in 50% of patients, characterized by the emergence of new foci not only in the bone marrow, but also in other organs. With each subsequent relapse, the prognosis of the disease worsens.
- The terminal stage is characterized by growing ulcerative-necrotic lesions, expressed by a violation of normal hematopoiesis, the presence of severe complications, the lack of effect from the therapy, including cytostatics.
The average life expectancy of patients with lymphoblastic leukoiesis is twice shorter than with myeloblastic leukemia and is about six months. The cause of death is most often infectious complications, as well as bleeding.
Features of the course of chronic leukemia
The most common forms of chronic leukemia are myelo- and lymphatic leukemia, myeloma, erythema, subleukemic myelosis, polycythemia, and others.
- Chronic leukemia at the initial stage of its development may occur asymptomatic and detected in the study of blood on another occasion.
- In the period of pronounced clinical manifestations may greatly disturb the weakness and sweating, a slight increase in body temperature, as well as pain in the bones. Very often the appetite is lowered, patients lose weight in the weight up to exhaustion (cachexia), are concerned about the sense of gravity in the right hypochondrium and in the spleen due to the increase in these organs and the development of inflammation in them. This stage of the disease in the systematic treatment of cytostatics can last up to 4-5 years or more (all depends on the form of leukemia), without appropriate treatment - no more than 2-3 years.
- In the terminal stage of chronic leukemia, spleen and liver, lymph nodes are greatly increased. Appear and progressing phenomena of cardiovascular insufficiency (shortness of breath, lowering blood pressure, tachycardia, and others), the hemorrhagic syndrome is moderate. In some cases hepatitis with yellowness, hepatic insufficiency develops. The resistance of the body to all types of infection is reduced, so often there are pneumonia, tonsillitis, fungal and purulent lesions, which can lead to fatal outcome.
The course and effects of leukemia
Some types of chronic leukemia (lymphatic leukemia) may be complicated by the emergence of autoimmune processes that lead to the development of autoimmune thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia. In rare cases, malignancy (ozlokachestlenie) of enlarged lymph nodes with the development of hematococcal disease and severe pain syndrome is possible.
With a benign course of the disease, timely conduct of courses of antiretroviral therapy, the ability to work in patients can be stored up to 10 years or more.