Leishmaniosis is transmitted by mosquitoes or through unsterilised needles. Prevalent in Afghanistan, Brazil, Iran, Peru, Saudi Arabia, Syria, India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sudan, Ethiopia.
Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by the simplest leishmaniasis and transmitted by mosquitoes.
The causative agents of leishmaniasis are the simplest of the genus Leishmania. In total, 17 types of leyshmanes are dangerous for a person.
Some of them become the cause of skin forms of the disease, others - its visceral varieties, which affects some internal organs.
The transmission of leyshmanes occurs either through mosquitoes, or through the use of contaminated syringes and needles in the drug com- munity.
Leyshman's life cycle
For leyshmons, it is characterized by a rather sophisticated reproduction cycle in which the body of a potential victim - a person or an animal - turns out to be deceived by the passive behavior of the pathogen.
In the body of the female mosquitoes, the parasite is in the form of an ointment (oblong and with a long twig-shaped tail). In this state leishmanias multiply in the digestive tract of the insect.
A few days later, the masticots become so much that they block the gaps of their channel with their bodies and their gel. Because of this during the regular bite the female mosquito can not swallow and is forced to tear off the promastigotites into the skin of the victim.
Arriving at the place of skin damage neutrophils (blood cells of the host organism) absorb promastigotes by phagocytosis (enveloping them around).
The promastigotes do not show themselves, being inside the neutrophils. As a result, when neutrophils are destroyed by the macrophages of the host's immune system, they find themselves inside their vacuoles and there they turn into amastigotes (round and with a shortened flagellum).
The amastigotes are able to feed inside the vacuoles and actively multiply than they do during the day after transformation. Getting in the blood, they infect new and new cells.
If an infected person in this period bites mosquitoes, the amastigotes in his middle intestine pass into the state of an ointment and the cycle repeats itself.
In the visceral form of leishmaniasis, the incubation period (from the time of the bite of mosquito to the appearance of the first symptoms) lasts from 20 days to 10 months.
The disease develops gradually. Fever and weakness appear, there is an increase in the lymph nodes, the spleen and the liver are just huge. Blood and diarrhea may start. The skin acquires a dark gray color - hence the second name of the disease - "kala-azar", black fever.
The skin form of leishmaniasis develops rapidly and does not spread throughout the body - only in the thickness of the skin. On the place of bites formed granulomas - the growth of inflamed skin tissue in the form of a nodule. Gradually, in these places, ulcers are formed.
In a number of manifestations, leishmaniasis may be similar to brucellosis, lymphogranulomatosis, typhoid fever and anthrax.
Diagnosis of leishmaniasis
The diagnosis is based on the results of blood tests, as well as microscopic examination of the material of ulcers, cerebrospinal fluid and lymph.
Treatment of leishmaniasis
When used for treatment, special anti-protozoal drugs are used. If necessary, removal of the spleen (splenectomy) is performed. If during the course of the disease a fungal or bacterial infection is added then antibiotics or antimycotics are additionally prescribed.
From person to person, leishmaniasis is not transmitted (if you do not take into account the use of common syringes and needles), but the patient should be protected from possible bites of mosquitoes, in order to prevent the spread of infection.