The centralized training of blind orientation in space can only give a lecture on the skill, and sharpen it throughout life - a difficult and not always successful path from dependent existence to an active, full-fledged life.
The most important task of learning spatial orientation is to give each blind the optimal set of knowledge and skills that allow him to adequately act in all environmental conditions.
The program of studying the spatial orientation of the blind envisions:
- Training for adequate interpretation of external environmental stimuli;
- Forming in blind, correct subject and spatial representations;
- Developing skills for successful actions in all conditions of life.
Levels of spatial orientation
Tiflopsichologii share the process of studying spatial orientation into three basic levels.
First degree - elementary skills. At this degree, the blind must independently act and navigate in everyday living space, in the conditions of an apartment, house, private plot, at his workplace, if he has one.
These skills are considered to be quite simple, they are all blind gained by the time they enter the rehabilitation centers, which carry out a centralized training for spatial orientation. Independently, the skills of the first degree can not be mastered by people with complicated blindness.
At the second step, the blind must acquire the skills of self-orientation in open space on the streets, the routes needed for him every day. In doing so, you need to be able to find available and convenient landmarks on each route.
Orienteering in the open air is seized by a small number of blind people. Most of them are specialized schooling for blind children or rehabilitation centers for the visually impaired. It is necessary not only to give the skills of moving on one or another route, but also teach the blind to improve existing knowledge through constant systematic training.
The level of spatial orientation of the third degree provides for the possibility to navigate in all conditions of the city, use all types of transport in small areas of the environment, etc. In this case, the help of sighted people is not foreseen, or its share is negligible. Such skills are achieved only through lifelong workouts, these are the most complex skills, but they provide great opportunities for blind people to integrate into society.
Principles and learning outcomes of blind orientation
All training programs for the blind are for blind people without any other violations, which in practice is rare.
In this regard, instructors who carry out similar training, at the first stage of work, divide students into groups depending on the presence or absence of any violations.
After graduation, all blind people should:
- Have information about the meaning of residual organs of feelings and their meaning in orientation;
- Have a correct idea of the surrounding space and its objects;
- Be able to find visual, touching and olfactory landmarks, have skills to use them in orientation;
- Be able to describe subjects and routes by means of oral speech;
- Have the skills to use a cane;
- To be able to use all kinds of city and suburban transport;
- Be able to independently study complex, combined routes.