Kister Baker is a synovial fluid accumulation in the popliteal articular bag that is the result of a knee joint disease of the inflammatory, traumatic, infectious, and other nature.
Outside, Baker's cyst reminds of a tumor-like illumination (cherry-to-chicken egg size) of tight-elastic consistency, painless, located on the back of the knee joint.
The skin over the cyst is not changed, the usual color. The cyst is better seen to crochet the knee. With large size, the cyst is limited in the knee flexion, and the patient usually has a feeling of dislocation under the knee, a feeling of discomfort.
Why does Baker's cyst arise?
Normally, the poplite bag almost does not contain synovial fluid. But with the development of inflammation in the knee joint, the synovial (inner) membrane begins to intensively produce synovialnuclei. This can occur immediately in several round articular bags and cavity of the knee joint, but can occur only in one of them, including the popliteal.
With the prolonged existence of the inflammatory process, additional germs can be formed on the inner surface of the cyst, and in the synovial fluid, various chemical compounds (salts), leukocytes, and fibrinogen protein form, forming a displaced suspension.
If signs of inflammation in the joint disappear, a small cyst may spontaneously disappear, large cysts may decrease in size, but, as a rule, they do not completely disappear and increase again for relapse of the disease.
Often Baker's cyst occurs when rheumatoid polyarthritis, osteoarthritis of various nature, after knee joint injury, its meniscus and articular cartilage, with osteoarthritis and other degenerative-degenerative diseases, with metabolic arthritis, with damage to the fibrous capsule of the joint with the formation of chronic synovitis.
Possible complications of Baker's cyst
- The rupture of the cyst with the release of its contents in the soft tissue of the shin.
- Compression of the cystitis of the tibia with a disturbance in sensitivity and the appearance of numbness on the back and inner surface of the shin.
- Compression of a large cyst of venous and lymphatic vessels can lead to phenomena of venous congestion and even the formation of thrombophlebitis, as well as to the disturbance of lymphatic drainage.
Diagnosis of Baker's cyst is performed by ultrasound scanning, as well as computer and magnetic resonance imaging. To clarify the nature of the process and relieve the patient's condition, heal-diagnostic puncture of the joint, sucking out the contents of the cyst and directing it to the study, using a syringe, and instead a medication (antibiotics, corticosteroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, etc.) is introduced.
Baker's cyst treatment
- Conservative - for small cysts. It complements the treatment of the underlying joint disease. In some cases, medical diagnostic puncture is used, but the effect of it is temporary, if joint inflammation persists.
- Surgical (cyst excision) - is performed with large cysts or ineffectiveness of conservative therapy, but does not guarantee the reoccurrence of synovial fluid in another periarticulate bag. Therefore, after the removal of the cyst, conservative therapy of the knee joint disease (drug therapy, physiotherapy, massage, balneotherapy, phytotherapy, reflexology and pharmacopunkture) are performed.