Birthmarks, or birthmarks, are called nevus in medical terminology. In Latin this is the "birthmark". The appearance of nevus is due to the genetic predisposition. When a birth spot appears much later, at an older age, this does not mean that the nevus refers to acquired skin defects.
As a rule, people do not pay attention to birthmarks until they are sore or do not show a strong an itch. Normally, pigment spots are different from the skin only by color and nothing more. Nevus also grows hair, there are greasy and sweat glands.
Color change is due to the presence of a special pigment - melanin. The color of the skin, eyes and hair depends on its content in the body. The more melanin, the darker the skin. In case of violation of the exchange of precursor melanin - amino acids tyrosine, there are discolored stains - vitiligo. When there is no pigment, people are born albino. They have red eyes, because the iris is transparent, and through it the blood vessels shine. In albinos, there are no nevus and all the problems associated with them. While ordinary people need to pay attention to the fact that the birthmark is hurt or in some way begins to manifest itself. It may be itchy or hypersensitivity in the nevus area.
Why appear and what are the birthmarks
Nevusi are formed from any cells that make up the skin. Therefore, the degree of staining of birthmarks is not the same.
Distinguish the following types of nevus:
- Pigmented spots may be brown, black or blue. The intensity of coloration of the mole is dependent on the amount of melanin. These are the most common birthmarks and the most dangerous from the point of view of oncology. When a dark colored moles hurt, there is a risk of developing melanoma;
Vascular nevus seem to be like spots of red or cyanotic color. Appear on the skin of the face or trunk. Below are cosmetic defects, so people try to get rid of them;
- Modified sebaceous glands are found on the skin of the scalp, with a yellowish color. Practically not visible and do not cause anxiety. As long as the mole does not hurt on the head, there is no need to remove it;
- Teratomas are a special subspecies of the Nevus. These rude spots fully justify their name. Indeed, it's spots, not wart growing, rising above the level of the skin. Usually, the birthmark does not hurt on the face, unless skin is damaged. Appear teratomas in the form of stripes. In pregnancy, they are well visible, and after delivery, as if disappearing. This is due to hormonal changes in the body of pregnant women.
The appearance of nevus is genetically determined. With some kind of birthmarks a person is born, and some appear later. But they do not come from nowhere, moreover, are not transmitted as infectious diseases.
Why is a birthmark?
Pain receptors are located throughout the skin. Moreover, any nerve endings: tactile or temperature, with increased irritation "trigger" as pain. Since the nevus is located in the skin, the mole is ill in the same circumstances as all skincoverings.
The pain is felt with the following stimuli:
- High and low temperature;
- Damage due to a cut, a shot, a blunt blunt object;
- Burning, including chemical.
Such a pain man feels both in the area of the Neva, and on the surrounding skin.
It is much more dangerous when the mole is ill in the place of its localization, isolated from the rest of the skin. The sensitivity of the moles to external stimuli is practically no different from the rest of the skin, but under certain conditions its threshold is reduced.
When the Nevusi have a structure of large papillomas or warts on legs that are located in places where they collide with clothes, they are exposed to constant, daily irritation.
As a result of mechanical action, the surface, epithelial cover and nerve endings are exposed. That's why the mole is ill, located in the so-called "problem zone".
When Nevusi are located in places not prone to irritation with clothing, the probability of their mechanical damage is very small. Therefore, if there are unpleasant sensations in the place of localization of the pigment spot, it is necessary to determine why the mole is ill, located on the back, for example. For this purpose it is necessary to address to the doctor of a dermatologist. The specialist will conduct the necessary examinations and appoint treatment, choosing the most appropriate tactics.
The birthplace of the inflamed and painful
The inflammatory process in the nevus area can lead to uncontrolled cell growth. So there are tumors that are called cancer in the area of the covering tissues. If the birthmark is inflamed and achy, you should immediately contact your doctor. If possible, before the oncologist.
When inflammation in the area of the nevi appear redness and swelling, and on the circumference of the rumen spot is formed ridge of depigmentation - fibrosis. This is due to vascular spasm. Thus, the protective reaction of the organism manifests itself, aimed at the localization of the process.
In such cases, if the mole is ill, the nature of the inflammation should be determined.
Tactics of doctors for patients with Nevusi
Taking into account the high risk of developing melanoma - a fleeting cancer of the skin, dermatologists have developed a certain tactic that includes prevention of oncological processes:
When nevus appear in people after birth, there is a need for continuous medical control over growth or other changes in the field of birthmarks;
- All patients with congenital births that have reached the elderly have to be monitored by the physician. When in the aging age the birthmark grows and hurts, it indicates a violation at the cellular level, which undoubtedly represents an increased interest of oncologists;
- If the Nevusi are beyond the attention of a person, he is offered the surgical removal of birthmarks. Especially when they are in the zone of constant friction with shoes or clothing. In such cases, the birthmark grows and hurts much more often and more strongly. This also indicates the possibility of malignant nevus cell growth;
- A change in the color of the birthmark indicates a blood circulation disorder in the area of the native spot. Especially if the birthmark is inflamed and aching, and its diameter is increasing. Particularly alertness of oncologists causes pigmented birthmarks to be spotted, grouped into one anatomical region. When the number of nevus is more than six, it is recommended that they be removed for the purpose of cancer prevention.
Even when the birthmark does not hurt, but brings a sense of discomfort: itching, burning, peeling, bleeding, an urgent need to undergo a survey at an oncology clinic. Regardless of why the mole is sick, in no case can you attempt to independently remove nevus. This should only be done by qualified doctors of oncology.