What is intestinal obstruction, what are its causes and varieties.
Intestinal obstruction is a violation of the promotion of the contents of the intestine. This condition is characterized by a whole set of disorders that endanger the life of the patient, and therefore requires immediate, most often surgical treatment.
Continuous and unobstructed promotion of the contents of the intestine is carried out by the smooth work of smooth muscle. Violation of this relentless conveyor leads to severe syndrome.
Intestinal obstruction: reasons
The causes leading to intestinal obstruction are either due to an obstruction in the way of the contents, or with a disorder of the peristalsis.
Therefore, intestinal obstruction is divided into two types: mechanical and dynamic.
Mechanical obstruction can cause adhesions of the abdominal cavity. Thus, many patients, even a few years after cavitary surgery, return to surgical hospitals with intestinal obstruction. The condition is called adhesive disease. Also very often bowel loops can be broken in hernia.
The intestine can squeeze out of the tumors or enlarged organs. For example, overcrowded and stretched bladder as a consequence of prostate adenoma can squeeze the intestine in the lower parts.
The obstruction can occur from the intestine itself, so the intestinal tumors detect themselves rather late when covering the lumen, partially or completely. External bodies can also become an obstacle, regardless of which end of the digestive tract they have entered the body.
Dynamic obstruction is very common in the elderly. Weak intestinal activity, which is manifested by the usual constipation, may end with feces and the inability to promote the contents further. Extremes in diet also affect the function of the intestines.
Vegetable fiber, as it is necessary for the normal formation of fecal masses, in excessive amounts can cause the phenomenon of intestinal obstruction.
A sharp transition from breastfeeding in a similar way can negatively affect the health of the baby. Sufficiently common in surgery can be considered paralysis of the intestine, as an appropriate reaction to inflammation of the peritoneum for various reasons (for example, breakthrough stomach ulcers).
Intestinal obstruction: signs
The main feature of intestinal obstruction is pain. The characteristic difference of such pain is periodicity (approximately every 10 minutes), since it is associated with peristalsis. The intensity of the pain increases with every hour. In overdue cases, the painful peristalsis is exhausted, and the pain becomes permanent.
In addition to the promotion of chyme is disturbed and the separation of gases, which overflow the bowel loops, lead to severe bloating. Stagnant phenomena in the lumen of the intestine lead to a progressive disorder of water-salt metabolism and increasing intoxication. Nausea is replaced by vomiting, the weakness is accompanied by interruptions in the work of the heart.
In urgent surgery, the most important method for confirming the diagnosis is an overview of the abdominal cavity radiography. Although other methods can substantially complement the general picture of the disease.
Treatment of intestinal obstruction
Depending on the cause of obstruction, the tactics of surgeons may be different. Mechanical impediments, as a rule, require urgent surgical intervention. Short infusion preparation before surgery is allowed, at least temporarily, to correct water-salt violations.
In case of dynamic obstruction open surgery can not correct the main cause. Surgical intervention can help to eliminate the blockage, drain the lumen of the intestine with a multimeter tube, but the main task for dynamic obstruction is to restore peristalsis. This is only possible after elimination of water-salt disorders and possible inflammation of the peritoneum (with peritonitis).
How to behave myself
Of course, any reception of even a small amount of food can worsen the patient's condition, therefore, from the moment of suspicion of intestinal obstruction, the reception of food is strictly prohibited, and the reimbursement of liquid is made by drip infusion (infusion therapy).
When repeated attacks of obstruction patients are obliged to control their diet, avoiding excessive amounts of plant fiber and products that cause increased gas formation. Extremely cautious should be with numerous diets that promote prolonged starvation with enemas. After a period of forced starvation, the intestine should be returned to the previous work gradually, in order to avoid swelling.
A balanced diet, physical activity and regular physiological departures will help maintain the intestine in a constant "form."