Intestinal damage with closed abdominal trauma is observed mainly at falls from height, in road accidents and in severe compression.
The maximum number of traumatic intestinal injuries is always due to the time of wartime. As a rule, it is firearms wound, closed damages that occur as a result of the impact of an explosive wave.
In peacetime, intestinal damage in the case of closed abdominal trauma is observed mainly when falling from a height, in road accidents with severe compression. The degree of damage to these injuries may be different: slaughter of the intestine, single (multiple) breaks, etc.
Manifestations of intestinal trauma
In the diagnosis of closed abdominal injuries, lesions are often combined, which makes it difficult to correctly diagnose.
Rupture of the intestine manifests itself in the form of acute abdominal pain at the time of injury, accelerated pulse, palpation of the abdomen, pain, tension of the abdominal wall muscles.
Open injury of the intestine occurs in cases of penetrating wounds of the abdomen: knife, firearms, inflicted by other sharp, prickly objects.
Clinical picture of acute injuries with open intestinal lesions is manifested as follows:
- Acute intestinal pain;
- Intense vomiting;
- Accelerated pulse (up to 100 beats per minute);
- Strong tension of the abdominal muscles;
- Pain in palpation.
The main place in the diagnosis of open and closed intestinal lesions is the X-ray examination of the abdominal cavity of the patient. It is this study that makes it possible to detect fluid accumulation in the lateral abdomen, as well as the appearance of free gas, paralytic obstruction of the intestine.
Types of intestinal damage
In addition to the above-described injuries, wounds are also diagnosed as belonging to the household category: bowel damage in pelvic bone fractures, operations on other organs, during medical manipulations, as well as possible damage to the intestines by foreign bodies, burns of the intestine.
Intestinal damage in medical manipulations is divided into three groups:
- Slight injuries (cracks, extinction);
- Injuries of moderate severity (bowel damage without damage to the intestine integrity);
- Traumas of high severity (damage with violation of integrity of the intestine and adjacent organs).
Mechanical lesions of the rectum can be observed during medical manipulations: rectal thermometry, examination of mirrors, during treatment and treatment of enemas.
Intestinal damage to foreign bodies, as a rule, occurs when foreign bodies enter the intestines by swallowing them or injected into the anus. Acute foreign body can cause perforation in any part of the intestine with the subsequent formation of an abscess, which is very often taken during a survey for a malignant tumor.
Spontaneous breaks of the rectum occur with a significant increase in intraabdominal pressure during lifting of gravity, urination, defecation, with cough, stomach, during labor or at falling.
Chemical burns of the colon and rectum are diagnosed when there is a misleading introduction of ammonia, sulfuric acid or other chemicals into the rectum.
Rupture of the intestine from the effects of compressed air occurs due to the careless handling of the hose, which is connected to the compressed air cylinder.
Most often, intestinal ruptures are localized in the places of the sigmoid bowels, splenic bends. Delaying with the provision of medical assistance to a victim, the operation contributes to the development of pelvic peritonitis.