If you get into the wound of dirt or damage to a rusty subject, you need an injection from the tetanus - this is known by everyone. But in some cases it is precisely the vaccine that can be a health hazard to the patient.
Despite the fact that tetanus vaccine (especially polyvalent whole-cell vaccines containing killed microbial cells) is difficult to tolerate in many patients, it is still shown with any infection in the wound when anaerobic conditions are created.
This is especially true for prickly wounds (if oxygen is available, tetanus bacteria can be stored for a long time in the environment: even in seawater remain viable for half a year). Therefore, it is necessary to approach the injection from the tetanus carefully, taking into account all contraindications.
Contraindications to tetanus vaccination
The final decision on the holding of an injection from the tetanus is decided by a doctor or assistant, taking into account all contraindications.
At the same time, it is not desirable that the vaccine from the tetanus is carried out simultaneously with other vaccines, but on vital indications it still conducts. The most common contraindications for tetanus vaccine are:
- Expressed polyvalent (multifactorial) allergy or susceptibility to allergic reactions;
- An allergic reaction to the administration of an anti-vaccine vaccine earlier or intolerance to one of its components (tetanus taxoid, thiomersal, aluminum hydroxide, formaldehyde);
- Acute infectious diseases or chronic in the stage of sharp aggravation or decompensation (especially diseases of the liver and kidneys);
- The issue of vaccination during pregnancy for vital signs is solved only in conjunction with the obstetrician-gynecologist.
Side effects and complications during tetanus vaccination
The most frequent reaction is given by multicomponent vaccines.
1. Common acute reactions (systemic): fever, acute allergic reactions (up to laryngospasm and anaphylactic shock), general weakness.
2. Deferred reactions:
- Skin rashes of the type of urticaria with local or general itching, edema, dermatitis;
- against a background of low immunity can form an abscess or abscess at the site of vaccination with complete external healing wounds, Lyell's syndrome (soft tissue necrosis) development of regional lymphadenitis - inflammation of the surrounding, axillary lymph nodes, sepsis (a generalized form of infection);
- Serum sickness, post-vaccine arthritis with severe pain syndrome and edema;
- An asthmatic attack several hours after vaccination or the development of asthma in 2-4 weeks after vaccination, hyperventilation of the lungs (increased breathing, leading to excessive blood intake of oxygen).
3. Fatal outcome is rare (4 cases per 10 million vaccinations).
4. Reactions from the nervous system:
- Inflammation of the roots and nerves (radiculitis and polyneuritis),
- temporary paresis and paralysis (usually unilateral, with partial or complete loss of speech), usually on the side of vaccination
- Spastic contractions of the peripheral muscles of the extremities, accompanied by pain of varying intensity and duration,
- Acute transverse myelitis and encephalomyelitis, accompanied by severe headache (frequent adverse reaction to vaccination).
5. Complications from the cardiovascular system: increased palpitation - tachycardia, arrhythmias, angina attack (in severe cases - myocardial infarction)
6. Manifestations from the digestive organs when vaccinated against tetanus: nausea, elevated salivation and vomiting, diarrhea, flatulence with spastic abdominal pain.
7. From the urogenital system: temporary urinary retention (with shock development), temporary menstrual irregularity, reversible erectile dysfunction
What should be taken into account when administering tetanus vaccine
- Vaccination from tetanus does not contribute to the formation of immunity from this disease, as well as the disease itself.
- First of all it is necessary to prevent infection of the bloodstream, so it is immediately necessary to treat the wound with handicapped disinfectants (hydrogen peroxide, solution of manganese), pre-removing dirt and foreign objects, and only then do the vaccination. When puncturing it, it may be an additional wound rubbing with anti-drug drug.
Do you need a re-injection of tetanus?
The question of the expediency of revaccination is decided by the doctor, since in some cases repeated frequent vaccination (as traumatic) can lead to severe adverse reactions, especially in elderly patients.
There is no consensus on re-vaccination in adults - according to recent data, it should be done no more than once every 5-10 years (it is believed everywhere - every 25 years).
Children are vaccinated according to a specially designed scheme. If necessary (trauma), enter a specific immunoglobulin.