In the world there is a huge variety of viruses that cause reactive hepatitis and are marked in different letters. One of these viruses is the hepatitis D virus.
The most common are hepatitis B and C, but this does not mean that other viruses do not affect the overall structure of sick people in the world.
Viral hepatitis D is an infectious disease that is caused by a virus and develops only in people who have been infected previously or simultaneously with the hepatitis B virus. There are several genotypes of the hepatitis D virus, of which three are isolated. For Europe and North America, genotype I is characteristic, which causes liver cancer and cirrhosis more often than others.
A special virus for hepatitis D
What is the feature of the hepatitis D virus? Why do they only get sick with infected viral hepatitis B? The answer lies in the structure of the viral particle, which is not a complete virus and refers to satellite viruses.
Satellite viruses can not multiply without the host virus, which provides its outer shell for these purposes. The hepatitis D virus uses the hepatitis B virus sheath for these purposes, which facilitates the penetration of the virus virus into liver cells and subsequent reproduction.
Thus, there are two possible forms of infection with hepatitis D: simultaneously with hepatitis B (coinfection) and infection with hepatitis D on the background of a previous infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (superinfection).
It is believed that more than 5% of carriers of hepatitis B are infected and hepatitis D. The highest incidence is noted among drug addicts.
In the case of coinfection, the overall picture of the disease initially resembles the development of hepatitis B. During the period of unwell, nothing indicates the presence of another virus.
The disease manifests itself in the form of weakness, fatigue, general feeling of being, joint pain, but by the end of the first week, the state of health of patients is sharply deteriorating. Against the background of a typical jaundice (skin color, mucous membranes, itchy skin) there are severe symptoms. Patients are concerned about the lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting, headache, insomnia. These are the symptoms of a massive reproduction of the hepatitis D virus.
Despite the severity of the acute period, distant prognosis is usually favorable. Superinfection of the hepatitis D virus proceeds rapidly, dramatically, practically without an unheated period. The heavier course of hepatitis D virus superinfection is 25% of the total, which is not typical of any other form of viral hepatitis.
The main diagnostic of viral hepatitis D is a blood test for the determination of hepatitis markers (B and D). Also in the acute period are biochemical blood tests (high numbers of indicators of liver tissue damage markers - ALT, AST, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase) and ultrasound of the abdominal cavity (a significant increase in the liver).
In the acute period of the disease it is important to pay attention to the therapy of viral hepatitis B, since the reproduction of the hepatitis D virus depends entirely on the host virus. However, the prognosis of the disease is unfavorable. The incidence of chronic hepatocellular lesions as a result of acute viral hepatitis D is approximately 10% with coinfection and 90% with superinfection with the development of rapidly progressing liver cirrhosis.