Malignant tumors of the heart occur rarely (not more than 25% of the primary tumors of the heart), which is associated with intense metabolism and excellent blood supply to this organ throughout life.
The most common malignant tumors of the heart are:
- Primary sarcoma. It can have a different histological structure, including epithelial cells (cancer), as well as pericardial or endocardial cells. Often found in the right chambers of the heart. Young people aged 30-50 years are prone to this disease.
- Primary lymphoma and primary mesothelioma occur infrequently.
- Metastatic heart tumors are secondary, but they occur 20-25 times more often than the primary tumors of the heart. These tumors include melanoma, leukemic, breast cancer, angioosarcoma, lung cancer, etc.
How does heart cancer develop?
Primary tumors They are dangerous because they quickly sprout all layers of the heart, affect the valve apparatus, thereby causing occlusion (blockage) of the holes connecting the chambers of the heart, its outcrops. In this case there is compression and germination of coronary vessels, as well as the growth of the tumor in the mediastinum and all its structures, lymph nodes, lungs and other organs. These types of tumors include: primary sarcoma, primary angiosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, fibro-myosarcoma.
Secondary (metastatic) tumors Are mainly due to the spread of tumor embolies from primary tumor formations or lymph nodes. In this case, the pericardium is affected in the first place, then the myocardium, the internal valve apparatus of the heart is affected less frequently.
Clinical manifestations of heart cancer
There are no more than 10% of patients and, as a rule, they are not the cause of death. At first - it is shortness of breath of a cough, pain attacks on the type of angina, an increase in general weakness. Then arises and gradually increases cardiovascular insufficiency, develops arrhythmias. Possible development of symptoms of pericarditis with accumulation of effusion in ocoloserdechnoy bag, atrioventricular blockade. Subsequently, in these patients there are signs of general hypoxia, anemia, pain in the joints, skin sensitivity, pulmonary insufficiency, a constant subfebrile temperature, sharply decreased appetite, and patients lose weight.
forecast With metastatic heart disease or sarcoma, this is due to the late appearance of clinical symptoms - they occur when 80% of patients already undergo metastasis. Usually, this process occurs within a year after the diagnosis.
In the diagnosis of malignant tumor defeats of the heart plays an important role:
- Detection of oncomarkers in serum
- Computer tomography
- Magnetic resonance imaging
- Radioisotope ventriculography.
- Echoscopy with color Doppler study.
- Coronography, etc.
Heart cancer: treatment
Surgical treatment is usually ineffective because of late diagnosis of the oncological process, which affects all parts of the body and its surrounding tissues. The most effective symptomatic therapy and combination therapy - radiotherapy and chemotherapy. It helps to improve the quality of life of patients, increase the life span of five years and more.