Gonorrhea: more dangerous than syphilis

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During its consequences Gonorrhea is a disease much more dangerous than syphilis, it entails a lot of complications - sexual disorders, infertility, infection of the newborn during delivery.

The modern name of the disease "gonorrhea" was introduced by Galen, who in the II century. Up to e. erroneously treated discharge from the urethra of men as semyatechenie (Gr. gone - family, rhoia - leakage). Despite the fact that the term "gonorrhea" incorrectly reflects the nature of the disease, it is firmly entrenched in medicine. In German-speaking countries, sometimes this disease is called "tryper", and in France - "blennorrhea".

Neysser - a scientist who discovered in 1879 that the causative agent, said: "I did not hesitate to declare that its consequences Gonorrhea is a disease far more dangerous than syphilis & quot. Indeed, gonorrhea brings a lot of suffering people sexually active age. This was particularly notably at a time when medical practice was not yet antibiotics. of course, gonorrhea not as destructive as syphilis, but the likelihood of infertility (both men and women), sexual disorders in men infected children during childbirth - is extremely high.

Recently, there is a tendency towards an increase in sexually transmitted infections, especially among young people aged 20 to 35 years. Perhaps this can explain the early onset of sexual activity, the presence of multiple sexual partners, a certain margin of sexual relations, measures to profilaktikezabolevaniy failure, sexually transmitted diseases, frequent cases of self-medication, and many other factors.

Of all sexually transmitted diseases, gonorrhea occurs most often. The causative agent of gonorrhea is gonococci, it belongs to gram-negative paired cocci, shaped like coffee beans, which are drawn to one another with a concave surface. Microbes are mainly intracellular in leukocytes, less extracellularly in the depths of tissues. Gonococci are highly susceptible to adverse environmental factors: die at temperatures above 55 ° C, drying, processing with solutions of antiseptics, under the influence of direct sunlight. Externally, gonococci are coated with a capsule substance, which makes digestion difficult for them. Persistence of infection is possible inside leukocytes, trichomonads, epithelial cells (incomplete phagocytosis), which complicates the treatment.

Widespread use of antibiotics has led to changes in the morphology and biological properties of gonococcus: there have been stable, gigantic L-shapes, poorly treated with penicillins. The persistence of Lform complicates the diagnosis and treatment of the disease and promotes the survival of the infection in the body as a result of reversion to vegetative forms of Gonococcus does not form exotoxin. With the death of gonococci, endotoxin is excreted, and it causes various degenerative-destructive changes in the tissues, the development of adhesive processes, and others.

Gonococcus maintains viability in fresh manure until it dries.

The main way of infection is sexual (from an infected partner). Much less often gonorrhea is transmitted by household (through dirty linen, towels, wipes), mainly in girls. The possibility of intrauterine infection is not proven.

Gonococci mainly affect the sections of the genitourinary tract, the mucous membrane of the cervical canal, fallopian tubes, urethra, paraurethral and large vestibular glands. At genital or oral contacts can develop gonorrheal pharyngitis, tonsillitis and stomatitis, with genital analic - gonorrhoeal proctitis. When a pathogen infects the mucous membrane of the eye, including during the passage of the fetus through infected germinal tract, there are signs of gonorrheal conjunctivitis. The wall of the vagina, covered with a multilayered flat epithelium, is resistant to gonococcal infection. However, in some cases (during pregnancy, in girls and in postmenopausal women), when the epithelium is thinned or fluffy, gonorrheal vaginitis may develop. Gonococci, getting into the body, quickly fix on the surface of the epithelial cells with peli, and then penetrate into the cells, intercellular cracks and subepithelial space, causing destruction of the epithelium and the development of inflammatory reaction.

Gonorrheal infection in the body is most commonly distributed along the drain (canalucular) from the lower sections of the genitourinary tract in the upper. More rapid progress is often promoted by the adhesion of gonococcus to the surface of the sperm and their transfer within the trichomonads.

Sometimes gonococci fall into the bloodstream, leading to the generalization of infection and the appearance of extragenital lesions, among which the most common are lesions of the joints. Gonorrheal endocarditis and meningitis are less common. In response to the introduction of gonorrhea, the body produces blood pressure, but the immunity is ineffective at the same time. A person can become infected and ill with gonorrhea many times. This can be explained by the antigenic variability of the gonococcus.

According to the WHO, annually the disease is registered in 200 million people. In Ukraine, after a slight decline in 1990, the increase in the incidence of gonorrhea since 2001 has increased to 102.2 per 100 thousand population.

Gonorrhea: more dangerous than syphilis

Category Of Medical Issues: Diseases

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