Gastroscopy is a type of endoscopic examination in which a mucosal examination of the upper gastrointestinal tract (esophagus, stomach, duodenum) is performed.
Other alternative variants of the name are FGDS (fibrogastroduodenoscopy), EGDS (esophagogastroduodenoscopy), fibrogastroskop. We are talking about the same survey, despite the variety of names.
Gastroscopy can be done on the appointment of a doctor, you should not assign yourself such a study. At present, gastroscopy of the stomach is carried out with the help of a flexible fibrogastroscope, within which a fiber-optic system is placed.
Due to the mobility of the distal (terminal) department of the apparatus, it is possible to examine all areas of the mucous membrane of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum.
Gastroscopy without pain is a reality.
This procedure can be both diagnostic and therapeutic. Endoscopic operations on the gastrointestinal tract are becoming increasingly popular and sometimes they prevent open surgery (for example, stomach bleeding can be stopped with gastroscopy using various methods - coagulation, clipping).
Gastroscopy of the stomach is possible in outpatient settings, the examination is widespread and practically practiced everywhere (outpatient clinics, private centers). Most often, gastroscopy is prescribed for complaints of a patient with nausea, pain in the upper abdomen, changes in appetite.
This examination surpasses the accuracy of the diagnosis of all the X-ray methods, allows for biopsy and therapeutic manipulation. It is possible to perform gastroscopy for children of all ages.
Indications for gastroscopy
Indications for this survey are quite extensive, with any suspicion of diseases of the digestive tract justified the appointment of gastroscopy:
- Pain in the upper abdomen, nausea, vomiting, heartburn;
- Signs of hemorrhage from the upper digestive tract (vomiting with blood, loss of consciousness, characteristic stool - ground);
- Signs of poor eating when swallowed;
- Suspected cancer (anemia, weight loss, lack of appetite);
- Diseases of other organs of the gastrointestinal tract, in which you need to know the condition of the mucous membrane (for example, acute pancreatitis).
Contraindications for gastroscopy depend on the order in which the study is performed. In emergency gastroscopy (for example, with abundant bleeding), contraindications are practically absent, and it can be performed even in a patient with acute myocardial infarction.
For scheduled gastroscopy contraindications are:
- Severe cardiovascular insufficiency, acute myocardial infarction;
- Acute violation of cerebral circulation;
- Pronounced respiratory failure;
- Period of recovery after acute myocardial infarction or stroke;
- Aortic aneurysm, aneurysm of the heart, aneurysm of carotid sinuses;
- Violation of cardiac rhythm;
- Hypertensive crisis;
- Severe mental disorders.
In the presence of contraindications, a specialist consultation is needed to assess the likelihood of a negative outcome from the study and assess its feasibility.
Preparation for gastroscopy of the stomach
To study it is required that it be carried out on a nocturnal basis. The last meal should be at least 6-8 hours before gastroscopy. Most often the procedure is carried out in the morning, so it is enough that in the morning the patient did not eat or drink.
In the presence of removable dentures, they must be removed before the study. In the study, it is important to properly evaluate the gastrointestinal mucosa, so preparation for gastroscopy of the stomach is very important for the patient. Smoking is prohibited in 2-3 hours. In the case of gastroscopy under anesthesia, the period of hunger can be extended to 10-12 hours.
Gastroscopy without pain - the wishes of all patients. Despite the fact that pain sensation during the study is practically absent, most patients expect them to be manipulated. Usually gastroscopy of the stomach is performed after an irrigation of the pharynx with a solution of a local anesthetic (lidocaine), this is done in order to reduce the vomiting reflex in the patient.
Sometimes, at the request of the patient (or on the testimony), it is possible to conduct research in conditions of general anesthesia (intravenous), but gastroscopy under anesthesia can be performed outpatiently in not all patients.
For manipulation, the patient stays on the table in the position on the left side, with slightly bent legs, the back should be straightened. Gastroscopy under anesthesia can be performed in the position on the back. After the introduction of the gastroscope in the mouth of the patient is asked to make a swallowing movement, which facilitates the movement of the device into the esophagus.
To suppress the vomiting reflex, the patient should breathe safely and deeply. Through the gastroscope air is provided to straighten the folds of the gastric mucosa and fully examine the entire mucous membrane. Fear of suffocation during gastroscopy of the stomach is completely unreasonable, since the patient's breathing does not interfere with anything. The doctor will carefully examine the internal surface of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum, and if necessary, take a biopsy (a piece of tissue).
Therapeutic manipulations are carried out by introducing into the endoscope channel additional tools. It is thus possible to remove polyps (growths and pidslyzysti) of the esophagus, stomach or duodenum, stop bleeding ulcers (acute and chronic), apply a ligature on the varicose veins esophagus, retrieve foreign bodies from the stomach.
Gastroscopy for children
Gastroscopy for children has a number of features. Mucous their delicate, vulnerable, rich in blood vessels, muscle layer of the walls is underdeveloped. Therefore, special endoscopes of smaller diameter (only 6-9 mm) are used for children.
In the younger age group (under 6 years of age) gastroscopy is performed under anesthesia. In children older than 6 years of age, general anesthesia is not required. An indication for anesthesia is a difficult condition of the child or a significant length of time study. Preparing for gastroscopy of the stomach in children has no differences compared with adults.