In connection with the global aging of the planet's population, scientists predict a rapid increase in dementia in the coming decades. Doubling will take place every 20 years. Now in the world about 36 million people suffering from dementia. Every year, about 8 million new diseases are recorded. By 2050, the number of fractional patients will reach more than 100 million people. Their care will require money that is not up to the budget of many countries.
The cost of treatment and care for dementia patients around the world is $ 604 billion. This figure is comparable to the budgets of countries such as Poland and Saudi Arabia, and is approximately equal to 1% of world GDP.
The high cost of nursing care is a threat even to the richest countries. Already, these costs substantially exceed other medical expenses. For example, in the United Kingdom, every year, £ 23 billion is spent on the care of dementia patients.
This figure is equal to the amount allocated to care for cancer patients (£ 12 billion), people with cardiovascular disease (£ 8 billion) and suffered a stroke (£ 5 billion). A similar picture is observed in Sweden.
In developed countries, about 50% of the financial burden of care for part-time sick is borne by family members, 35% - for social protection services and 15% - for health care. The difference in the funds allocated by different countries is enormous: in poor countries - from $ 868 per patient per year, in developed countries - to $ 32865. In Ukraine, as in most developing countries, the support of the state is minimal. The main burden falls on the family members of the patient.
Large-scale studies in Ukraine have not yet been conducted. However, according to various estimates, in our country there live 1,200,000 to 1,800,000 patients with dementia. Of these, a maximum of 3% of people receive treatment with antidemetal drugs - one too expensive, others simply do not know.
At 1,800,000 demented men living in the territory of Ukraine, more than 700,000 people have moderate and severe forms of dementia and need external care. At the same time in Ukraine there are only 226 thousand places in the residential institutions of social services for the elderly and adults with disabilities.
However, in reality, the proportion of patients with dementia accounts for not more than 10% of these places (slightly more than 20 thousand), since basically they are given to patients with schizophrenia, manic-depressive psychosis, infantile cerebral palsy, alcoholism and other drug addiction, organic pathology CNS, with hereditary diseases, etc.
Thus, at present only one of 36 patients with moderate and severe dementia can be placed in the residential institution of social services for the elderly and the disabled, so the main burden of care for such patients in the Russian Federation falls on the shoulders of relatives. In the United States, about 50% People with dementia receive qualified assistance on the basis of specialized medical institutions, in which they live until the end of their lives.
Facts from life
Dementia today is not only a family drama, it is a national problem. According to the survey, one in five Ukrainian citizens are in one way or another faced with this phenomenon among their relatives, friends, acquaintances, and colleagues.
The brain's maximum capacity is reached by an average of 22 years and is maintained for several years. However, until 30 years of brain function begin to decline. Such a conclusion was made by a professor at the University of Virginia, Timothy Salthaus, on the basis of a seven-year study, which was attended by about 2 thousand people aged 18 to 60 years.
The research has allowed to assert that some cognitive disorders begin in healthy educated people already in 20-30 years. In particular, it concerns the speed and accuracy of thinking, as well as the effectiveness of spatial imagination. Therefore, measures (including therapeutic) for the compensation of aging processes should begin long before the onset of aging. Later, approximately at the age of 37, the first decline in memory tasks appears.
Alzheimer's disease begins to develop 20 years before it manifests itself as the first symptoms in the cognitive field.
Exercises for the brain are just as necessary as exercises for the body. It is useful to work in the garden, dance and even cleaning, orally, to solve crossword puzzles, attend lectures, museums and concerts, learn a foreign language. And some observations suggest that people with a wide range of communication better preserve cognitive functions (first of all - memory) than non-party people.
A separate issue is the impact of family status on the risk of dementia. According to an article published in the British Medical Journal, marriage protects a person from the development of Alzheimer's disease in the elderly.
The study was conducted by scientists from Sweden and Finland, who observed a group of 2,000 individuals (average age - 50 years at the first survey). On average, the risk of dementia for single people was twice as high. But especially impressive statistics on people who are widowed in middle age and remained alone before their age - the risk of dementia increased for them 7 times.
In the list of the top ten causes of death, Alzheimer's disease (the leading cause of dementia in western countries) is the only disease that is still not preventable and curable.
In the United States, the analysis of causes of death in the population from 2000 to 2008 showed a steady reduction in mortality from all the common diseases: HIV/AIDS (-29%), stroke (-20%), heart disease (-13%), prostate cancer (- 8%), breast cancer (-3%). During this same period, mortality from Alzheimer's disease increased by 66%.
Give an answer to the extent to which each of the 24 problems included in the questionnaire is manifested in your everyday life.
Evaluate the answer for a four-point system: 0 - never, 1 - rarely, 2 - sometimes, 3 - often, 4 - very often.
1. I forget phone numbers
2. I forget that and where I put it
3. Once I get out of the book, I can not find the place I read
4. I need to draw up a list of things to keep in mind
5. I forgot about appointments
6. I forget what I was planning to do on my way home
7. I forget the names of the old acquaintances
8. It's hard for me to concentrate
9. It is difficult for me to convey the content of the TV program
10. I do not recognize familiar people
11. It is difficult for me to get into the meaning of what others say
12. I quickly forget the names of people I meet
13. I forget today's day of the week
14. When someone says, I can not concentrate
15. I'm still checking if I closed the door and turned off the cooker
16. I am writing with errors
17. I am easily distracted
18. Before new business I need to be instructed several times
19. It's hard for me to concentrate when I read
20. I immediately forget what I was told
21. It is difficult for me to make a decision
22. I do everything slowly
23. My head is empty
24. I forget what a today's number
Make the points you got. If the sum of points is above 42, it is assumed that there are cognitive impairments and you should consult a doctor.