The variety of substances causing neurotoxicosis is quite large, with some of them can be found in everyday life.
At the heart of the harmful effects of the toxicant on the nervous system is a violation of the metabolism in the nerve cell, violation of the pulse on the nerve fiber or violation of synaptic interactions.
Neurotoxicity has a lot of known substances, so signs of neurotoxicosis can develop in virtually any poisoning. Even if the toxicant does not directly affect the nervous system, then symptoms from the nervous system develops a second time.
Types of neurotoxicosis
Allocate acute and chronic neurotoxicosis. Acute poisoning develops with a single exposure to toxic substances in high doses, symptoms appear with it for several hours. Chronic poisoning is manifested in repeated exposure to a toxicant in a relatively low dose over a long period of time.
Any toxic substance can cause both acute and chronic poisoning, depending on the dose and frequency of exposure to the body. The symptoms of the lesion may vary.
Symptoms of neurotoxicosis
With neurotoxicosis there are changes in the general state and consciousness, motor and sensitive violations, violations in the emotional and cognitive spheres.
The first symptoms of a poisoning may be fatigue, loss of appetite, sleep disturbances, anxiety and irritability, depression, tension. There may be depression of consciousness from stunning to coma. When poisoning psihodyslepticheskimi substances develop illusions, hallucinations, delirium, confusion of consciousness.
Sensory disturbances include tactile sensory impairment, pain, visual impairment and hearing impairment. Perhaps inhibition of cognitive functions: memory, language, ability to study.
Disorders in the motor sphere may be represented by muscle weakness, tremor and muscle twitching, seizures, violation of coordination of movements, paresis and paralysis.
Types of neurotoxicants
By domination in the clinic, the poisoning of certain symptoms of neurotoxicants is conventionally divided into three groups: convulsants, sedative-hypnotic substances and psihodysleptiki.
- Among the convulsive neurotoxicants (convulsants), the most common are the following: strychnine, digitalis glycosides, organophosphorus compounds, widely used in agriculture for the destruction of insect pests, hydrazine and its derivatives. To substances of the same group is tetanotoxin - a substance released by bacteria - causative agents of tetanus.
- A group of sedative-hypnotic compounds is represented by cyclic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers, which include cirrhosis. To this group of toxicants include ethanol, vapor of gasoline and synthetic glue.
- Substances of the psihodysleptikov group can distort the mental processes: perception, emotion, thinking. This group includes various drugs-psychedelics: alkaloids psilocybinic mushrooms, hemp and peyote cactus, phencyclidine, derivatives of lysergic acid and morphine.
Chronic neurotoxic processes are characterized by symptoms not only from the central nervous system, but also the development of peripheral toxic neuropathies. Most often, chronic poisoning occurs when exposed to a toxicant in the production - this refers to lead, benzene, hydrazine, arsenic, carbon disulfide, ethylene oxide and other substances.
Chronic neurotoxicosis can develop with regular consumption of vegetables and fruits with high levels of pesticides.
Some drugs with prolonged use can also cause toxic neuropathy - vinblastine, cisplatin, isoniazid, penicillin, chloramphenicol, and others.
Treatment of acute poisoning is symptomatic, as etiotropic drugs-antidotes are absent to most toxic compounds.
In chronic poisoning, violations of the nervous system have occurred, usually irreversible, therefore symptomatic and metabolic therapy is prescribed.